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APA 7th Referencing Guide


  • If a document on the web has both a DOi and a URL, include only the DOI
  • "Retrieved from" is no longer required before a URL, unless a retrieval date is needed
  • URLs and DOIs should be displayed as hyperlinks, with live links
  • Provide the most specific date possible for webpages: year, month day; year, month; or year
  • Italicise the title of webpages
  • If the website name is different to the author, include it in the source element (after the title, and before the URL)


When referring to a website in general (ie. the homepage or default webpage that loads when you visit a web address that only contains a domain name), include the name of the website in the text and provide the URL in parentheses. No in-text citation or reference list entry is necessary.

For example

This survey was created using Qualtrics (


Only use webpage if no other reference type fits, and the work has no parent or over-reaching publication other than the website itself.

If you cite multiple webpages from a website, create a reference for each. 

General Format

Author. Date. Title of page. Source.

   Author: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. OR Name of Group.

   Date: (2020) OR (2020, August) OR (2020, September 23) OR (n.d.).

   Title: Title of the page

   Source: Website name AND URL http://xxxx OR Retrieved December 22, 2020, from (if a retrieval date is required) URL https://xxxx 

[Note: omit the website name if the author and website name are the same.]

Retrieval date?

Provide a retrieval date if the online information source you viewed is likely or designed to change over time (p. 290), e.g. dictionary entry, Twitter profile, Facebook page. Including this date to indicate that the version of the work you retrieved may be different from the version your readers retrieve.

General Format

Source author, Date, title, other relevant elements depending on the reference type. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL



U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population clock. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved July 3, 2019, from

Copyright date?

  • Do not use the copyright date on the webpage as the publication date for specific content/documents on that site.
  • Only use the copyright date if you can be sure that it applies to the content you are citing.
  • If multiple dates are provided, use the most recent date on which the content was changed (or updated/revised). A review date should not be used, as this implies that the information was not changed. 
  • If no separate date of publication is indicated for the work on a webpage, treat the work as having no date.

Webpage with a group author

When the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the source.

General Format
Name of group. (Year). Webpage title. Website name (if different to group name). Retrieved date from (if retrieval date required) URL
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, January 23). People at high risk of developing flu-related complications.
World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunization and vaccine safety.

Webpage with an individual author

General Format

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Webpage title. Website name. URL


Martin Lillie, C. M. (2016, December 29). Be kind to yourself: How self compassion can improve your resiliency. Mayo Clinic.

Webpage with no date

General Format

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial or name of group (n.d.). Webpage title. Other relevant elements depending on the reference type. URL


Royal Institute of British Architects. (n.d.). Shaping the future: Careers in architecture.

Webpage on a news website

Use this format for articles published in online news sources (e.g., BBC News, ABC News, Bloomberg, CNN, Huffington Post, Reuters, Vox).

General Format

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year, Month Day).Webpage/Article title. Site name. URL



Avramova, N. (2019, January 3). The secret to a long, happy, healthy life?
       Think age-positive
. CNN.

Campbell, E. (2020, February 18). Germany is shutting down its coal industry
        or good, so far without sacking a single worker. 
ABC News.

Webpage with a retrieval date

General Format

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial or Group source author. (Date).  Webpage title. Other relevant elements depending on the reference type. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL



U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population clock. U.S.
       Department of Commerce. Retrieved July 3, 2019, from


General Format

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Last update or copyright date;
       if not known, put n.d.). Article title. Newsletter title, number [if available]. 
       URL of specific document



Gordon, R. (2010). The passage of trauma through life. ACCSA Aware, 24.


Example - With no author

Southern Cross University: First regional training in osteopathy. (2009,
       October). Discover SCU

Wikipedia entry

See 'No author' tab in the Citing in text - author variations box, on the Citing in text page, for an example of an in-text citation.

General Format

Title. (Year, Month Day). In Wikipedia. URL



List of oldest companies. (2019, January 13). In Wikipedia.

Blog post

General Format
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year, Month Day). Title of post. Name of blog. URL
Klymkowsky, M. (2018, September 15). Can we talk scientifically about free will? Sci-Ed.

Citing a work with no page numbers

If a resource contains no page numbers, provide readers with another way of locating the quoted passage. Any of the below are acceptable ways to cite specific parts of a source:

  • heading or section name, e.g. (Gecht-SIlver & Duncombe, 2015, Osteoarthritis section)
  • abbreviated heading or section name in quotation marks if the original is loo long e.g. (Centre for Disease Control or Prevention, 2017, "What Can You Do" section)
  • paragraph number (count the paragraphs manually if they are not numbered) e.g. (Chamberlin, 2014, para. 1)
  • heading or section name in combination with a paragraph number e.g. (DeAngelis, 2018, Musical Foray section, paras. 4-5)
  • chapter, table or figure number e.g. ( Brown, 2017, Chapter 2); (Moore & Smith, 2019, Table 1)
  • slide number (in PowerPoint presentations) e.g. (Thompson, 2020, Slide 7)
  • time stamp (of videos or audiobooks) e.g. (Institute for Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 2011, 1:30:40)

Note: if you cite a particular section of a webpage or website in the text, the reference list entry should be for the page you used, not for only that section of the page.

[Tip: for journal articles in html format (with no page numbers), check to see if the article is available elsewhere as a PDF (portable document format), as this format usually includes page numbers.]