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APA 7th Referencing Guide

Format for including figures in your text

APA considers all types of visual items (e.g. graphs, charts, photographs, drawings, infographics, maps and clip art), other than tables, as figures. Figures may be sourced from journal articles, books, reports, webpages, or websites.

  • Each figure needs to be numbered in the order in which they appear in the document.
  • If a figure is being reproduced for inclusion in a work which is being published, you must seek permission from the copyright holder. This permission must also be included in the note beneath the figure.
  • Include the full reference in the reference list.

Below is the format for displaying and acknowledging figures in the body of your work:

  • Number: written as Figure X in bold above the figure (e.g. Figure 1)
  • Title: one double-spaced line below the figure number, capitalised in italics (e.g. Storyboarding)
  • Note: underneath the figure; includes description (if required) and copyright attribution: reprinted or adapted status (if required), source details, copyright status, and permission statement (if required); italicised (e.g. Note. Description.of ...)

For your own figures (e.g. an image, such as a photograph, or a table/graph displaying your own data), only include a figure number and title above the figure. No citation, copyright attribution or reference list entry is required.

Refer to this page of the APA Style site for examples: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/tables-figures/sample-figures#illustration

Figure - from a book/report or book chapter

Elements of the reference
As for a book or chapter in an edited book [see Books page], or a report  [see Reports page]
Elements of in-text display:

Figure X

Title

[Image]

Note. Description (if required). From Title of Book or Report (p. xx), by Author(s) - Initial(s). Last name, year, Publisher (DOI or URL). Copyright year by Name of Copyright owner OR In the public domain OR CC BY-NC.

Note. Description (if required). From "Title of Chapter," by Author(s) - Initial(s). Last name(s), in Editor(s) - Initial(s). Last Name(s) (Ed. or Eds.), Title of Book.(any edition or volume number, p. xx), year, (DOI or URL). Copyright year by Name of Copyright owner OR In the public domain OR CC BY-NC.

In-text display - image from a book

Figure 3

Inspiration and Expiration

[Image]

Note. From Yoga in the Music Studio (p. 57), by L. S. McAllister, 2020, Oxford University Press (https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/scu/detail.action?docID=6176636). Copyright 2020 by Oxford University Press.

In-text display - image from a chapter in an edited book

Figure 6

One Decision-making Framework

[Image]

Note. Shaming and blaming. From "Midwifery Decision-Making," by L. Ebert, in E. Jefford and J. Jomeen (Eds.), Midwifery: A Global Perspective.(p. 203), 2020, (https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/scu/detail.action?docID=5887639).Copyright 2019 by Lyn Ebert.

Reference list - image from a book
McAllister, L. S. (2020). Yoga in the music studio. Oxford University Press.
Reference list - image from a chapter in an edited book
Ebert, L. (2020). Midwifery decision-making. In E. Jefford & J. Jomeen (Eds.), Midwifery: A global Perspective (pp. 197-208). Taylor &Francis Group.
EndNote reference type
Artwork - add type of image to Type of Work field

Figure - from a journal article

Elements of the reference
As for an online journal article [see Journal Articles page]
Elements of in-text display:

Figure X

Title

[Image]

Note. Description (if required). From "Title: Subtitle of article," by Author - Initial(s). Last name, year, Journal Title, Volume (italicised)(Issue), p. xx (DOI or URL). Copyright year by Name of Copyright owner OR In the public domain OR CC BY-NC.

In-text display

Figure 1

Storyboarding

[Image]

Note. Deciding on the story line and scenes. From "Digital animation:New conditions for children's development in play-based setting," by M. Fleer, 2018, British Journal of Educational Technology, 49(5), p. 952 (https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12637 2018). Copyright 2018 by British Educational Research Association.

Reference list
Fleer, M. (2018). Digital animation: New conditions for children's development in play-based setting. British Journal of Educational Technology, 49(5), p. 952. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12637
EndNote reference type
Artwork - add type of image to Type of Work field

Figure - from a webpage or website

Elements of the reference
As for a webpage or website [see Websites, webpages page]
Elements of in-text display:

Figure X

Title

[Image]

Note. Description (if required). From Title of Webpage, by Author - Initial(s). Last name, year, (DOI or URL). Copyright year by Name of Copyright owner OR In the public domain OR CC BY-NC.

In-text display

Figure 2

International students studying at Southern Cross University

[Image]

Note. From Southern Cross University Shines in Online Offshore Courses, by Southern Cross University, 2021 (https://www.scu.edu.au/engage/news/latest-news/2021/southern-cross-university-shines-in-online-offshore-courses.php). Copyright 2018 by Southern Cross University.

Reference list
Southern Cross University. (2021). Southern Cross University shines in online offshore courses. [Photograph of international students studying]. Southern Cross University. https://www.scu.edu.au/engage/news/latest-news/2021/southern-cross-university-shines-in-online-offshore-courses.php
EndNote reference type
Artwork - add type of image to Type of Work field

Infographic

Note:

To include the entire infographic in your work, permission and/or a copyright attribution and reference list entry will likely be required. 

Elements of the reference
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title [Description]. Site name. URL
In-text display - example where the infographic is included 

Figure 6

Ratio of Women in National Parliaments

[Image]

Note. From Women and Equality in National Parliaments, by K. Ivett, 2017, Information is Beautiful Awards (https://www.informationisbeautifulawards.com/showcase/1850-women-and-equality-in-national-parliaments). Copyright 2021 by Information is Beautiful.

In-text citation - example where content only from the infographic is included
(Ivett, 2017) OR According to Ivett (2017) ...
Reference list
Ivett, K. (2017). Women and equality in national parliaments [Infographic]. Kantar Information is Beautiful Awards. https://www.informationisbeautifulawards.com/showcase/1850-women-and-equality-in-national-parliaments
EndNote reference type
Add Infographic to Type of Work field

Using stock images, clip art and Creative Commons images

Notes:

  • Attribution of a stock image is determined by its licence. The licence may indicate that no attribution, citation or reference is required, OR it may indicate that all of these elements are needed. The licence requirements apply regardless of whether the image costs money or is free, and to both papers and PowerPoint presentations.
  • In most cases, clip art does not require permission to reproduce. A licence which allows unattributed use of clip art images comes with purchase of computer programs, like Microsoft Word.
  • Check the copyright status of images from free clip art sites, to identify if a copyright attribution, citation or reference is required.
Elements of the reference
Group author(s) or author - last name, initial(s) - use & to combine authors. (Year). Title - italicised [Description - e.g. Photograph]. Site name. URL
Elements of in-text display - where no attribution required

Figure X

Title

[Image]

Note. Description (if required).

In-text display - example where no attribution required

Figure 1

Relaxing

[Image]

Note. Person relaxing in nature.

Reference list - example where no attribution required
No reference list entry required
Elements of in-text display - where attribution required

Figure X

Title

[Image]

Note. Description (if required). From Title of Webpage, by Author - Initial(s). Last name, year, Site Name (DOI or URL). Copyright year by Name of Copyright owner OR In the public domain OR CC BY-NC.

In-text display - example where attribution is required

Figure 2

Example of New York Appartment Building

[Image]

Note. From 361 Broadway - James While Building [Photograph], by ajay_suresh, 2021, Flickr (https://www.flickr.com/photos/ajay_suresh/51522453870/). CC BY 2.0.

Reference list - example where attribution is required
ajay_suresh. (2021). 361 Broadway - James While Building [Photograph]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/ajay_suresh/51522453870/
EndNote reference type
Artwork
EndNote tips
  • Add Clip art OR Stock image to Type of Work field
  • Add provider of image eg. shutterstock to Publisher field

Figures in PowerPoint or poster presentations

Notes:

  • Where use of the image requires attribution of the copyright owner (according to the licence on the source), the figure number and title may be excluded, but a note under the image and a reference list entry should still be provided
  • If the image is a stock image or clip art from a site where no attribution is required, the figure number, title, note and reference may be excluded
Elements of the note below figure (only required if attribution is needed):

Note. Description if necessary. From [or Adapted from] Title of image [format]by A. B. Author and C. D. Author, year, site name [if available] (http://URL). Copyright [year] by Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission [if necessary]/In the public domain/CC BY-NC

Example - multiple images on one slide (with note and reference list entry)