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APA 7th Referencing Guide

Incorporating citations in your work

Using in-text citations

  • No specific font type or size required. Recommendations include Calibri size 11, Arial size 11, Lucida size 10, Times New Roman size 12, Georgia size 11 or Computer Modern size 10 (LaTeX).
  • The last name of the author(s) and the year of publication are generally needed.
  • They can be part of a sentence (narrative) e.g. Allen (2020) has argued that ... or included within parentheses or brackets (parenthetical) e.g. (Allen, 2020).
  • A page number is included for a direct quote. Place a comma after the year and use p. for single page, pp. for multiple pages e.g. (Dombrow, 2014, p. 155) or Wardell (2022) has stated " ... " (pp. 32-33). If there is no identifiable page number, provide another way for the reader to find the quoted information, e.g. (heading or section name, paragraph, chapter, table or figure number)
  • When you paraphrase or refer to an idea from another work, a page number is not required. However, for longer works (e.g. books), it can be useful to include a page number to assist the reader to locate the relevant part of the work.
  • If there is no date, the abbreviation n.d. may be used e.g. (Walters, n.d.)
  • if work is not yet published, use in press e.g. (Smith, in press)

Group authors with known abbreviation

  • Groups as authors include government departments, professional associations, company names, organisations

In-text citation:

Format
First Use: 
(Group Name [abbreviation], Year) OR Group Name (abbreviation, Year)
Subsequent Uses:
(Abbreviation, Year) OR Abbreviation (Year)
Example
First use:
(Animal Welfare League [AWL], 2012) OR Animal Welfare League (AWL, 2012)
Subsequent Uses:
(AWL, 2012) OR AWL (2012)

Works with authors with same last name

  • Include each first author’s initials in all citations. Do this for the FIRST author only. 
  • Initials of first author are included even if year of publication differs.

In-text citation:

Format
(First author - first name initial. last name, Year) OR First author - first name initial. last name  (Year)
(First author - first name initial. last name & second author - last name, Year) OR First author - first name initial. last name and second author - last name (Year)
Example
(C. A. Brown, 2006) OR C. A. Brown (2006) suggests that….
(J. Dombrow, 2008) OR J. Dombrow (2008) outlined that...
(T. Allen & Simpson, 2014) found that ..... OR T. Allen and Simpson (2014) found that .....

Works with same author(s) and same year

  • Place an a, b, c etc after the year 
  • The letters are allocated in the reference list where references with the same first author last names are organised alphabetically by title. The first reference listed uses "a", second uses "b" etc.
  • If "in press" is used for the year, place dash between "press" and relevant letter eg. in press-c
  • Use each time the references are included. This includes for a single reference within a parentheses or multiple works in same parentheses.
Examples:
(Kent & Young, 2020a)
(Kent & Young, 2020b)
(Kent & Young, in press-c)
(Kent & Young, 2020a; Munro, 2018)

Work with no author(s) or editor(s)

In-text citation:

Format
("First words of article, chapter title" - in title case, Year) OR "First words of article, chapter title - in title case" (Year)
(Title of book, journal - in title case, Year) OR Title of book, journal - in title case (Year)
Example
("The Coral Sea", 2013) OR "The Coral Sea" (2013)
(The Great Barrier Reef, 2017) OR The Great Barrier Reef (2017)
  • Use double quotation marks "....." and title case (capitalise each word) for title of article, chapter or web page with no author.
  • Italicise title of journal, book, brochure or report with no author. Use title case.
  • Use title case for in-text references only. 

Multiple works within same reference

Two or more works by different authors

  • List works alphabetically (as they appear in the reference list)

  • Separate references with a semicolon ;

Example:
(Drinkwater, 2001; Jack et al., 2017)

Two or more works by the same author 

  • Order references by year of publication

  • Put n.d. (no date) references first

  • Put "in press" references last

  • Only use the author last name or groups name once then list the years

Examples:
(Monnier, n.d., 2013, 2016, 2019, in press)
(Education Queensland, 2011, 2013)
(Education Queensland, 2011; Monnier, 2013, 2016, 2019, in press)

Two or more works by the same author published in the same year 

  • Place an a, b, c etc after the year 

  • The letters are allocated in the reference list where references with the same first author last names are organised alphabetically by title.

  • Repeat each year with each letter used eg. 2018a, 2018b, 2018c

  • If "in press" is used, place dash between "press" and relevant letter eg. in press-c

  • Use this format each time the references are used in-text. 

Examples:
(Munro & Langan, 2010a)
(Munro & Langan, 2010a, 2010b, in press-c)
(Munro & Langan, 2010a, 2010b; Kohlman & Flanagan, 2006; Tourism Queensland, 2009)

Works that are reissued, reprinted, republished or translated

  • Both the original year and the reissued, reprinted, republished or translated year of the work needs to be included.

  • The years are separated by a forward slash /.

  • The original year is listed first.

Example:
(Austen, 1813/2015) OR Austen (1813/2015)