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APA 7th Referencing Guide

Books/eBooks

  • For publication date, use the copyright date
  • The place of publication is not required in the reference
  • The reference for an ebook is the same as a print book unless there is a DOI
    • Include the publisher name and a DOI (if available) for an ebook
    • The platform or device (e.g. Kindle) is not required in the reference for an ebook
    • For an ebook from an academic database, without a DOI, include the publisher name, but do not include a URL

Books with one author

If the book is edited, refer to the Chapter in edited book/ebook section below.

General Format
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Copyright Year). Book title: Subtitle. Publisher. (List all publishers with ; between them)
Example - One author
Mayer, D. (2010). Essential evidence-based medicine (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Example - One editor
Prosser, I. P. (Ed.). (2011). Water: Science and solutions for Australia. CSIRO Publishing.
Example - One author - ebook with no DOI (same as a print book)
Younging, G. (2018). Elements of Indigenous style: A guide for writing by and about Indigenous Peoples. Brush Education.

Book with two authors

If the book is edited, refer to the Chapter in edited book/ebook section below.

General Format
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Copyright Year). Book title: Subtitle. Publisher.
Example - Two authors
Abigail, R., & Cahn, D. (2011). Managing conflict through communication (4th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.
Example - Two editors
Maher, K., & Cooper, B. (Eds.). (2008). National standards of practice for case management. Case Management Society of Australia.
Example - Two authors - ebook with DOI
Delmas, M., & Colgan, D. (2018). The green bundle :Pairing the market with the planet. Stanford University Press.https://doi.org/10.1515/9781503606425

Book or ebook with 3-20 authors

If the book is edited, refer to the Chapter in edited book/ebook section below.

General Format
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Copyright Year). Book title: Subtitle. Publisher.
Example
Glasgow, N. A., McNary, S. J., & Hicks, C. D. (2006). What successful teachers do in diverse classrooms. Corwin Press.
Example - ebook with DOI
McMeekin, A., Green, K., Tomlinson, M., & Walsh, V. (2018). Innovation by demand : an interdisciplinary approach to the study of demand and its role in innovation . Manchester University Press. https://dx.doi.org/10.7228/manchester/9780719062674.001.0001

(Up to 20 authors can be listed in this way in the Reference List).

Book with 21 or more authors

If the book is edited, refer to the Chapter in edited book/ebook section below.

General Format
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (for the first 19 authors), …Last Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Copyright Year). Book title: Subtitle. Publisher.
Example
Abraham, C., Miller Z., Ellis, S., Driscoll, J., Renman-Fryer, R., Fuller, J., Bayer, S. A., Faben, M., Mellor, K., Murphy, N., O'Neill, J., Tosh, M. E., Ciccaglione, A. R., Hoffnan, A., Zala, H., Langer, H., de Souza, R., Avermore, A., Sunderland, L., … Inman, S. (2017). Introduction to evidence-based practice in nursing. Oxford University Press.

Chapter in an edited book/ebook

An edited book is a book, whole title page includes "edited by ...", and whose individual chapters are written by different authors (which may include the editor/s). These authors may also be called "contributors", and are acknowledged at the beginning of the chapters, and/or in the table of contents.

For one editor, insert the editor's name in the place of the author's name, followed by "(Ed.)" without the quotation marks. For two or more editors, insert the editors' names, followed by "(Eds.)". 

If edition or revision information is to be included, it comes before the page numbers, and the two elements are separated by a comma. For numbered editions, use the abbreviation for the ordinal number that applies (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.) then add "ed." For a revised edition, use the abbreviations "Rev. ed."

Include the DOI of the chapter, when available.

General Format
Author Surname [of Chapter], First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Chapter title. In Editor First Initial. Second Initial. Surname (Ed.), Book title: Subtitle (pp. page range of chapter). Publisher.
Example
Thompson, S. (2008). Teaching in a virtual setting. In L. Bell & R.B. Trueman (Eds.), Virtual worlds, real libraries: Librarians and educators in Second Life and other multi-user virtual environments (pp. 165-172). Information Today.
Example - Edition other than the first
Thompson, S. (2011). Teaching in a virtual setting. In L. Bell & R.B. Trueman (Eds.), Virtual worlds, real libraries: Librarians and educators in Second Life and other multi-user virtual environments (2nd ed., pp. 165-172). Information Today.
Example - eBook
Dawson, G. (2004). Work: From certainty to flexibility. In G. Hughes & R. Ferguson (Eds.), Ordering lives: Family, work and welfare (pp. 84-118). Routledge.

Dictionary, encyclopaedia, or thesaurus

General Format
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial (or Corporate Author). (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Publisher (if not the Author)Retrieved month day, year, from URL of book

When a stable or archived version of the work is cited (as shown in the last example), a retrieval date is not needed.

Examples
American Psychological Association. (n.d.). APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved June 14, 2019, from https://dictionary.apa.org/
Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved July 12, 2019, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/
Zalta, E. N. (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2019 ed.). Stanford University. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2019/

Entry in dictionary, encyclopaedia or thesaurus - individual author

The format is similar to a chapter in an edited book, because the entry has an individual author, the work has an editor, and the whole work has a publisher. Because this version of the entry is archived, a retrieval date is not needed.

General Format
Author, A. (date). Title of entry. In E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (Edition). Publisher. URL  
Example
Graham, G. (2019). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2019 ed.). Stanford University. https://plato.stanfrod.edu/archives/sum2019/entries/behaviorism/

Entry in dictionary, encyclopaedia or thesaurus - group author

When an online reference work is continuously updated, and the versions are not archived, use n.d. as the year of publication and include a retrieval date.

General Format
Group Author. (date). Title of entry. In Title of book. Retrieved month date, year, from URL
Examples
American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Positive transference. In APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved August 31, 2019, from https://dictionary.apa.org/positive-transference
Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Self-report. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved July 12, 2019, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/self-report

Edition other than the first

Format
  • Second edition = 2nd ed.
  • Third edition = 3rd ed.
  • Fourth edition = 4th ed.
  • Revised edition = Rev. ed.
General Format
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle (edition). Publisher.
Example
Buglear, J. (2010). Stats mean business (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann.

Translated book

Both the year of the original publication, and the year of the translation are included in the reference.

General Format
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle (Translator: First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, Trans.). Publisher. (Original work published YYYY).
Example
Castro, F. (2008). My life (A. Hurley, Trans.). Dover. (Original work published 2006).

Publisher and place of publication

  • The place of publication is not required, except for conference proceedings and presentations.
  • List all publishers, separated by a semi-colon ( ; ).
  • If a work is published by an imprint or a division of a company, use the imprint or division as the publisher.

Book with more than one publisher

When there is more that one publisher, list them all, separated by a semi-colon  ; 

General Format
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Copyright Year). Book title: Subtitle. First Publisher; Second Publisher.
Example
Schmid, H.-J. (Ed.). (2017). Entrenchment and the psychology of language learning: How we reorganize and adapt linguistic knowledge. American Psychological Association; De Gruyter Mouton. https://doi.org/10.1037/15969-000

Open educational resource (OER)

Provide as specific a date as is available for the book.

Include a retrieval date in the reference if you identify that the contents of the page are meant to be updated over time, but are not archived.

General Format
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Date: copyright year, month day; copyright year, month; copyright year). Book title: Subtitle. OER Publisher/Repository. Retrieved (date: month day, year, if required) from URL of the website/book
Example - One author
Fagan, J. (2019, March 25). Nursing clinical brain. OER Commons. Retrieved January 7, 2020, from https://www.oercommons.org/authoring/53029-nursing-clinical-brain/view

Illustrated / picture book

Note: The APA 7th Publication Manual does not include specific examples for including illustrators.

The following examples are suggested ways that illustrators can be included, if necessary, for picture books. If including an illustrator in an in-text citation, for a picture book, just add their surname after the author's surname

General Format (1)
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Illustrator Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Illustrator). (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Publisher.
Example 1
Fox, M., & Mullins, P. (Illustrator). (1986). Hattie and the fox. Scholastic Press.
General Format (2)
Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle (Illus. First Initial. Illustrator Surname). Publisher.
Example 2
Fox, M. (1986). Hattie and the fox (P. Mullins, Illus.). Scholastic Press.

Religious, classical or ancient text

  • Religious works (e.g. the Bible, Qur'an, Torah, Bhagavad Gita), classical works (e.g. ancient Greek and Roman works), and classical literature (e.g. Shakespeare) are all cited like books. Religious works are usually treated as having no author.
  • Classical works and classical literature are treated as republished works. At the end of the reference, provide the reference to the work and the year  in the following format: (Original work published Year). 
  • For translated religious and classical works, include the translator's name in the reference. (see Translation tab).
  • Use ca. which stands for "circa" which means an approximate date.
Examples
King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/ (Original work published 1769)
The Qur'an (M. A. S. Abdel Haleem, Trans.). (2004). Oxford University Press.
The Torah: The five books of Moses (3rd ed.). (2015). The Jewish Publication Society. (Original work published 1962)
Aristotle. (1994). Poetics (S. H. Butcher, Trans.).  The Internet Classic Archive. http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotole/poetics.html (Original work published ca. 350 B.C.E.)
Shakespeare, W. (1995). Much ado about nothing (B. A. Mowat & P. Werstine, Eds.). Washington Square Press. (Original work published 1623)

See also: Formatting dates for in-text citation for Religious, ancient or classical texts