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APA 7th Referencing Guide

Reference list layout & formatting

  • Centre the heading, References, at the top of the page
  • No specific font type or size required. Recommendations include Calibri size 11, Arial size 11, Lucida size 10, Times New Roman size 12, Georgia size 11 or Computer Modern size 10 (LaTeX).
  • The entire reference list is double spaced, with no spaces between the references.
  • Include all sources cited in your assessment.
  • A reference list is arranged alphabetically by author last name.
  • If there are two references by the same author, list in order of publication date with the older one first. "No date" (n.d.) references should always precede references with "some date." For example:
    • Bloggs, J.S. (n.d.)...
    • Bloggs, J.S. (2016)...
    • Bloggs, J.S. (2018a)
    • Bloggs, J.S. (2018a, September)...
    • Bloggs, J.S. (in press)...
  • Each reference appears on a new line.
  • Each item in the reference list is required to have a hanging indent.
Zarate, K., Maggin, D. M., & Passmore, A. (2019). Meta‐analysis of mindfulness training on teacher well‐being. Psychology in the Schools, 56(10), 1700–1715.
  • References should not be numbered.
  • If a reference has no author, it is cited by title, and included in the alphabetical list using the first significant word of the title.
  • If you have more than one item with the same author, list the items chronologically, starting with the earliest publication.
  • If there is no date, the abbreviation (n.d.) may be used.
  • Use the full journal name, not the abbreviated name.
  • URLs or DOIs can either be live links (blue and underlined) or as normal black text with no underline. If the work containing the reference list is to be made available online, use the live link format. 
  • Alphabetise numerals as though they are spelled out. For example, alphabetise 8 as though it were "eight". The reference will appear with the other references beginning with "E". 
  • In APA 7th, you can use a link shortener (like tinyurl or bitly) to create a friendly URL for your reference list. You need to make sure the link you are shortening is stable - that is, you can still click on the link several days later and it will still take you to that article.

Multiple works with same author(s) and same year

  • Arrange works with the same author(s) and same year alphabetically by the first significant word in the title (disregarding the words "A", "An", and "The") in the reference list. This then determines which references uses a, b, c etc.
  • Add the relevant letter after the year (which is also used for corresponding in-text references). The first reference listed in the reference list uses "a", second uses "b" etc.
Yang, Q., & Harris, J. G. (2010a). Dynamic range control for audio signals using fourth-order level estimation [Paper presentation]. 129th Audio Engineering Society Convention, San Francisco, CA.
Yang, Q., & Harris, J. G. (2010b). A higher-order spectro-temporal integration model for predicting signal audibility [Paper presentation]. International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Dallas, TX. 
(Yang & Harris, 2010a)
(Yang & Harris, 2010b)
  • If the date is n.d. (for no date), include a dash then the relevant letter at the end eg. n.d.-a. It will appear before any specified years.
  • If the date is "in press", include a dash then the relevant letter at the end eg. in press-a. It will appear after any specified years.
  • If a month and day are included, references with just a year are first, followed by specified dates in chronological order. For example:-
(Taylor, 2019a)
(Taylor, 2019b, May 14)
(Taylor, 2019c, August 3)
  • This applies to all reference types with the same author(s) and year.


  • Article or book chapter titles
    • use sentence case (the first word uses a capital letter with each subsequent word in lower case). The exceptions are for names eg. countries and after a colon : eg. Writing prose in Australia: Words of wisdom from the best
    • do not use single or double quotation marks.
    • do not italicise
  • Books (including when using book chapters) and reports titles
    • use sentence case  
    • italicise the title 
  • Journal, magazine and newspaper titles
    • should be provided in full (not abbreviated) and use title case (i.e. capitalise all major words), rather than sentence case. eg. Psychological Review.
    • they should be italicised.
  • Website titles should be italicised.  
  • No title
    • add a description of the reference used, including the type of reference in square brackets. For example, [Image of a child playing in outdoor playground]. 
  • For social media posts or comments without a title, add up to the first 20 words used in the post or comment and italicise it. Also include a description of the work in square brackets. For example, On Monday and Tuesday (16-17 December) this week, we are replacing computers in the PACE Health Sciences Library [Infographic].

Order of works with no author

  • Use the title in place of the author
  • List alphabetically
  • Use the first significant word of the title. Ignore "A", "And" and "The".

For example, 

The best 10 years of Radio magazine. (2003). Radio9(9), 79.
The only 10 recipes you'll ever need. (1998). Good Housekeeping227(3).

Publisher details

  • List multiple publisher names in the order in which they appear, separated by semicolons.
  • If the book is published by an imprint or division, use the imprint or division as the publisher (e.g. Churchill Livingstone, which is an imprint of Elsevier).
  • For publisher names, words like "Co.", "Publishers" or "Inc." should not be included. For example, use Springer, not Springer Publishers.
  • Places of publication are not included.
  • Do not include publisher name if it is the same as the author.

Publication date

  • Use n.d. if there is no date available
  • Use in press when the work is accepted for publication but has not been published
  • When the work has been published online prior to publication, include the year of when it was added online.
  • When a month, date or season is used, use (Year, Month Date) or (Year, Season). For example, (2019, November 8) or (2019, Autumn/Winter).
  • If a "Last Updated" date in used, include this as the publication date. This is only when the information has been clearly changed, not just reviewed.
  • For online works that are meant to be changed regularly eg. Facebook, dictionary entry, use Retrieved Month, Date, Year, from URL. For example, Retrieved November 8, 2019, from

Volume, issue and page numbers

  • If there are no volume or issue numbers, omit these details. You can only include the information that has been provided.
  • Use the full page range and full page numbers eg. pp. 121 - 138
  • For an online publication that uses article numbers or similar, include Article then the article number in the Page Number place. For example, Article e09645731
  • Page numbers are included when you are referring to a section of a greater work eg. book chapter, journal article.


Abbreviation      Book or publication part
ed. edition
Rev. ed. Revised edition
2nd ed. second edition
2nd Aust. ed. second Australian edition
Ed. (Eds.) Editor (Editors)
Trans. Translator(s)
Vol. Volume (as in Vol. 4)
Vols. Volumes (as in Vols. 1-4)
No. Number
Pt. Part
Tech. Rep. Technical Report
Suppl. Supplement


(Taken from APA, 2019, pp. 306-307)

Example reference list


Ballard, T., Yeo, G., B. Vancouver, J., & Neal, A. (2017). The dynamics of avoidance goal regulation [Advance online publication]. Motivation and Emotion, 1-10.

Brown, C. G. (2020). Ethical and legal considerations for using mind–body interventions in schools. In C. Maykel & M.A. Bray (Eds.), Promoting mind–body health in schools: Interventions for mental health professionals. (pp. 113-128). American Psychological Association.

Carson-Chahhoud, K. V., Ameer, F., Sayehmiri, K., Hnin, K., van, A. J. E., Sayehmiri, F., Brinn, M. P., Esterman, A. J., Chang, A. B., & Smith, B. J. (2017). Mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(6).

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975/2000). Beyond boredom and anxiety. Jossey-Bass. (Original work published 1975).

Dravsnik, J., Signal, T., & Canoy, D. (2018). Canine co‐therapy: The potential of dogs to improve the acceptability of trauma‐focused therapies for children. Australian Journal of Psychology, 70, 208-216.

Leigh, J. (2010). Self-determined mindfulness and attachment style in college students (Publication Number 305210119) [Doctoral dissertation, Indiana State University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Malcolm, L. (2002-present). All in the mind [Audio podcast].

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. (n.d.). Wikipedia. Retrieved November 20, 2019, from

O’Brien, B. (2017, May 5). NVivo 11 training - full video (5/4/17) - updated [Video]. YouTube.

Office of Fair Trading. (2018, August 17). Community groups key to seniors staying engaged [Press release].

Quealy-Gainer, K. (2014, 16 April). I kill the mockingbird by Paul Acampora (review). Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books, 67(10), 494-494.

Rappaport, J., & Dubin, C. S. (1983, January 24). Say no more (Season 11, Episode 12) [Television series episode]. In B. Metcalfe, M*A*S*H. 20th Century Fox Television; CBS.

Shapiro, R. E., & Cowan, R. (2017, January 10). Key points about caffeine and migraines. American Migraine Foundation.

Siegal, Z. V., Teasdale, J. D., & Williams, G. M. G. (2011). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: Theoretical rationale and empirical status. In S. C. Hayes, V. M. Follette, & M. M. Linehan (Eds.), Mindfulness and acceptance: Expanding the cognitive-behavioral tradition (pp. 45-65). Guilford Publications.

Simon, P., & Garfunkel, A. (1965). The sounds of silence. On Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. [Song]. Columbia.

U2. (1988). Rattle and hum [Album]. Island; Sun Studio; Point Depot; Danesmoat; STS Studio; A&M Studios; Ocean Way.

Yang, Q., & Harris, J. G. (2010a). Dynamic range control for audio signals using fourth-order level estimation [Paper presentation]. 129th Audio Engineering Society Convention, San Francisco, CA.

Yang, Q., & Harris, J. G. (2010b). A higher-order spectro-temporal integration model for predicting signal audibility [Paper presentation]. International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Dallas, TX. 

Zachary, K. C. (2018). Treatment of seasonal influenza in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved May 3, 2018, from