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Using personal communications
- These can include:
- personal interviews
- phone conversations
- text messages
- confidential documents
- personal communications are NOT included in the reference list. They are only added as an in-text citation.
- Not included in the reference list
Person - initial(s). last name (personal communication, Month Day, Year)
J. T. Lewis (personal communication, May 14, 2018) OR (K. Taylor, personal communication, March 17, 2019)
- If it is a published interview, use the reference type in which you found the interview eg. online video, newspaper article
- For an interview you conduct, use the personal communication reference type format.
Interview with participant(s), as part of your own research
- Not included in reference list
- Do not cite individually, because this could compromise confidentiality.
Quote anonymously, for example, “Participant A said”.