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APA 7th Referencing Guide

Using personal communications

  • These can include:
  • personal interviews
  • meetings
  • emails
  • letters
  • memos
  • phone conversations
  • text messages
  • confidential documents
  • content from private networks or platforms
  • personal communications are NOT included in the reference list. They are only added as an in-text citation.

Personal communication

  • Not included in the reference list 
In-text citation
Person - initial(s). last name (personal communication, Month Day, Year)
J. T. Lewis (personal communication, May 14, 2018) OR (K. Taylor, personal communication, March 17, 2019)

Referencing interviews

  • If it is a published interview, use the reference type in which you found the interview eg. online video, newspaper article
  • For an interview you conduct, use the personal communication reference type format.

Interview with participant(s), as part of your own research

  • Not included in reference list
In-text citation
  • Do not cite individually, because this could compromise confidentiality.
Quote anonymously, for example, “Participant A said”.