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Harvard Referencing Guide

About citing electronic media

Electronic media can include film, television, radio and podcasts. When you write about electronic media you could also be referring to a script or a review.

Many of the general naming rules apply:

  • Use sentence case – retain initial capitals for the first word, proper nouns and proper adjectives.
  • Italicise the titles of films, television and radio programs, and podcasts.
  • Use italics for published works and roman type for unpublished works.
  • Use roman type and quotation marks for parts of works, such as episodes.
  • Use roman type and the spelling and capitalisation that the company uses for the names of channels, streaming services and networks.
  • Use full names of organisations the first time you mention them.


Elements of the reference
Director D (director) or Producer P (producer) (Year) Title of film: subtitle of film [motion picture], Name of Studio or Publisher, Place of Production.
In-text citation
  • After the first mention, you can abbreviate the title as long as it makes sense. You can also omit the date in parentheses. This often happens with well-known and longer titles because it improves the flow of the text.
Ride like a girl (2019) tells the story of jockey Michelle Payne..
Picnic at Hanging Rock (1975) continues to be a popular film..
They released The Man from Snowy River II in 1988.
Reference list
Safran H (director) (1976) Storm boy [motion picture], South Australian Film Corporation, Adelaide.
Jury WF (producer) (1916) Battle of the Somme [motion picture], British Topical Committee for War Films, London.

Television programs

Elements of the reference
Director D (director) or Producer P (producer) (Year) ‘Title of episode: subtitle of episode’ [television program], Name of series (season number, episode number), Name of Station or Studio, Place of Production.
In-text citation
Gruen is a popular television program on ABC TV.
The Australian story episode 'Out of the blue' is about a shark attack in the Whitsundays.
Reference list
Pellizzeri R (director) (1994) ‘Luck of the draw’ [television program], Blue heelers (season 1, episode 44), Seven Network, Melbourne.
  • If the episode doesn’t have a name, write the name of the program first.
ABC Television (2019) Gardening Australia (season 30, episode 35) [television program], ABC Television, Sydney.

Online videos

  • For videos published online, hyperlink the title of the video and file format. Include the date you accessed it at the end of the reference.
  • If the video is from a database - behind a paywall - (ClickView or Kanopy) hyperlink the title and file format to the homepage.
Elements of the reference
Creator C or Owner of Video (Day Month Year) ‘Title of video’ [video], Name of Channel or Owning Organisation, Name of Website, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
Organisational author
The ABC (2018) reported on the next potential Nobel Prize winner..
Individual author
Remember to do practice exams (Abdaal 2022)..
Reference list
Abdaal A (24 February 2022) 'How I ranked 1st at Cambridge University - 20 study tips' [video]Ali Abdaal, YouTube, accessed 10 January 2022.
Australian Government Department of Health (28 February 2020) ‘Get the facts – immunisation facts in 90 seconds’ [video], Australian Government Department of Health, YouTube, accessed 6 March 2020.
ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) (10 May 2018) ‘The Australian writer who could be the next Nobel Prize winner’ [video]ABC News (Australia), YouTube, accessed 29 May 2019.
Veritasium (10 July 2021) 'The biggest myth in education' [video], Veritasium, YouTube, accessed 23 March 2022.
ClickView video
Short Cuts TV (2021) ‘Of mice and monkeys: ethical; issues in animal research’ [video], Short Cuts TV, ClickView, accessed 21 March 2022.

Radio programs

Elements of the reference
Presenter P (presenter) (Day Month Year) ‘Title of episode: subtitle of episode’ [radio program], Name of program, Name of Station or Studio, Place of Production.
In-text citation
The wire is a news and current affairs program on Brisbane community radio station 4EB.
'The bilby, the moon and the Birriliburu Rangers' from Off track went to air in January 2020.
Reference list
Jones A (presenter) (18 January 2020) ‘The bilby, the moon and the Birriliburu Rangers’ [radio program], Off track, ABC Radio National, Sydney.


Elements of the reference
Host H (host) and Producer P (producer) (Day Month Year) ‘Title of podcast: subtitle of podcast’ [podcast], Name of podcast, Name of Podcast Network, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
A local podcast in this popular genre is Australian true crime hosted by Meshel Laurie and Emily Webb.
'Evil crows, bird funerals, swooping magpies' is an episode from Triple J’s Science with Dr Karl podcast.
Reference list
  • Hyperlink the episode’s title if you played it from a webpage. Don’t link to the podcast’s file name. Always link to the webpage that hosts the podcast episode. Include the date it was accessed at the end of the reference.
Stephens J (host) (26 December 2019) ‘Best of 2019: the beauty queen killer’ [podcast], True crime conversations, Mamamia Podcasts, accessed 21 January 2020.
Hooper C (host) and Arnall K (producer) (3 November 2019) ‘Goodbye secret garage shame’[podcast], The pineapple project, ABC, accessed 4 February 2020.


Musical compositions include:

  • songs
  • operas
  • ballets
  • dances
  • chamber music
  • soundtracks
  • electronic music.
Elements of the reference
Creator C (Year) ‘Title of song: subtitle of song’ [Medium], Title of compilation or album, Name of Publisher.
Creator C (Year) Title of long work or compilation [Medium], Name of Publisher.
In-text citation
'Dance monkey' by Tones and I is about..
Sadie is a 1968 album..
Reference list
Tones and I (2019) ‘Dance monkey’ [Song], The kids are coming, Sony Music Australia.
Farnham J (1968) Sadie [Album], EMI/Columbia
Bach JS (2010) The Brandenburg concertos: concertos BWV 1043 & 1060 [Album recorded by Academy of St Martin in the Fields], Decca.