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Harvard Referencing Guide

Generative Artificial Intelligence (GenAI) Tools (e.g. ChatGPT)

This advice is as of 15th May, 2023

Generative AI tools can be used to create content such as text, images or music. For more information, read about the use of generative AI tools for your studies on the Academic Integrity and Turnitin page.

If you have used a generative AI tool in your assessment, you need to acknowledge this use as part of your commitment to academic integrity at SCU. Discuss with your Unit Assessor if you are not sure about how you can use generative AI tools in your studies.

Quoting or referring to ChatGPT’s text is like sharing an algorithm’s output and the ‘author’ of the algorithm needs to be credited with a reference list entry and the corresponding in-text citation. It is recommended to include the full transcript in an appendix.


When given a follow up prompt of "what is a...?" the ChatGPT-generated text indicated "abc and xyz" (OpenAI 2023; see Appendix A for the full transcript).

Generative AI tools are an emerging technology, so this advice on how to reference your use of a generative AI tool may change. Keep checking this guide for updated information.

AI generated text

Elements of the reference
Title. Year. Place of publication: Publisher. Software: Platform. 

Note: if the place of publication is not known, omit this information.

In-text citation
(OpenAI 2023; see Appendix B for the full transcript) OR (OpenAI 2023)
Reference list
ChatGPT. 2023. San Francisco: OpenAI. ChatGPT: Microsoft Windows  

The full transcript of prompt(s) and response(s) should be included in an appendix.  

AI generated images

Elements of the reference
Title. Year. Place of publication: Publisher. Software: Platform. 

Number and title/caption (above the image) 

Figure 1: The image was generated by DALL-E with the prompt ‘ballet dancer.’ 
Source (below the image)

Rule: Source: Adapted from Source (Year). 

Source: Adapted from DALL-E (2023). 
In-text citation
Figure 1 shows the use of generative AI using the prompt ‘ballet dancer’ (DALL-E 2023).  
Reference list
DALL-E. 2023. San Francisco: OpenAI. DALL-E: Microsoft Windows. 

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