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Harvard Referencing Guide

In-text citation formats & author variations

In-text citation formats

In-text citations can be presented in two formats:

  • (Author Date) / (Author Date, page number) - information focused format: the citation is usually placed at the end of a sentence. If the citation refers to only part of the sentence, it should be placed at the end of the clause or phrase to which it relates.

          For example:

While an activist image of workers is sometimes presented (Rodrıguez-Garavito 2005), workers are more often depicted as unwilling accomplices in factory managers’ manipulations (Ngai 2005).

Since ‘no social group is an island’ (Tajfel 1981, p. 258), group members may often be  aware of  the representations held by  members of  relevant out-groups about their own group. 

  • Author (Date) / Author (Date, page number) - author focused format: the name of the author appears in the text, it need not  be repeated in parenthetical citation. The date should immediately follow the author's name.

           For example:

In the long run, Saarinen (2006) argues, development of tourism may not always be the most favourable use of natural and cultural resources …

For Rawls (1971, p. 92), a set of “primary goods” including “rights and liberties, opportunities and powers, income and wealth” should be taken as the object of distributive justice.

Citing sources with two or three authors

When a work has 2 or 3 authors, cite all the names in the order in which they appear in the reference. If you integrate the authors names into the sentence, use ‘and’ instead of the ampersand.

Examples:

Learning on demand is becoming a type of lifestyle in modern society (McLoughlin & Lee 2007).

Hogg and Reid (2001) propose several social cognitive processes that may explain leadership dynamics.

Malinowski, Miller and Guota (1995) reported the same effects …

The sheer size and scale of the industry causes problems for analysis (Riley, Ladkin & Szivas, 2002).

Citing sources with 4 or more authors

If a work has 4 or more authors, cite only the surname of the first-listed author followed by ‘et al.’ wherever  the reference occurs in the text ('et al.' is the Latin term for 'and others').

Examples:

Results of the cross-national study reported by Liu et al. (1987) indicate that concerns over impacts of tourism on the environment were shared by all the residents surveyed …

               A total of 38,350 visitors were recorded visiting those areas in 2004,
               including tour groups (Greiner et al. 2005).

Note:  Include all the author names in the reference list

Greiner, R, Larson, S, Herr, A & Pinger, P 2005, Independent travellers in the North Kimberley: benefits, impacts and management challenges, CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Davies Laboratory, viewed 18 October 2016, <http://savanna.cdu.edu.au/downloads/Kimberley%20travellers.pdf>.

Citing sources with 4 or more authors where both sources are published in same year with the same first author

When referencing two or more sources published in the same year, and all these sources have the same first author and maybe even the same second, third authors, provide the names of enough authors in the in-text citation to show the difference.

Examples:

            (Larour, Morlighem, et al. 2012)

            (Larour, Schiermeier, et al. 2012)

            (Milillo, Rignot, Mouginot, Scheuchl, Li, et al. 2017)

            (Milillo, Rignot, Mouginot, Scheuchl, Morlighem, et al. 2017

Citing multiple sources at one point

When inserting two or more references at one point in the text, place them in alphabetical order by the surnames of the first authors. Separate each source by semicolons.

    For example:

The pace of life is slow allowing for reflection (Hofstede 1997; House et al. 2004; Triandis 1994).

Boyer, Gibson, and Loretan (1999); Forbes and Rigobon (1999); and Stambaugh (1995) note that calculating correlations conditional on high or low returns, ...

Citing multiple sources by the same author/s

Multiple sources by the same author/s - If you cite two or more works from the same author/s at one point in the text, arrange the sources in chronological order, starting with the earliest date.

    For example:

This behavior is a form of confirmation bias, first identified by Wason (1960, 1966, 1968), referring to our tendency to selectively overemphasize evidence …

Confirmation bias (Wason 1960, 1966, 1968) imposes persistence on policy and entrepreneurial expectations, even in the presence of a certain amount of disconfirmation.

If a page number is included in the in-text citation, use a semicolon to separate a page number from a date following it.

    For example

             (Campbell & Shiller 1987, p. 375; 1988a, p. 220)

Citing multiple sources published in the same year by the same author/s

Sources published in the same year by the same author  are listed alphabetically by the title of the work and a lower-case letter (a, b, c, ...) is added immediately after the date, in both the reference list and in-text citations.

For example:

Although these approaches have more traditionally focused on the presentation of individual identities, recent research indicates that people may also be motivated to influence how others view their social identities (Ellemers et al. 2000; Klein & Azzi 2001; Reicher & Levine 1994a1994b).

Citing authors with the same surname

When citing sources written by authors with the same surname, include the authors’ initials in in-text citations.

Examples:

Different research reported the same effects occurring, regardless whether it was in lakes (Nguyen, D 2009, p. 3) or rivers (Nguyen, L 2009, p. 145). 

D Nguyen (2009) and L Nguyen (2009) both reported the same effects occurring in lakes and rivers.

Cite sources with no author

When the name of an author or authoring body is not shown, cite the reference by its title and the year.  Use the first few words if the title is too long. 

For example:

This was apparently not the case before about 1995 (The entrepreneur's guide to the law 1999).

Organisation as author

Where the author is an organisation, use the name of the organisation as the author (corporate author).

Example:

Since the Industrial Revolution began, ocean acidity has increased by 30% (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007).

Citing in text: page number/s & other variations

Paraphrasing & summarising sources

You must cite the original author or researcher and the date of publication when putting information or an idea in your own words by summarising or paraphrasing from other people's works.

For example:

    Theory and research on impression management suggest that people may monitor the image that they provide of themselves to the audiences they address (Baumeister 1982; Leary & Kowalski 1990; Schlenker 1980).

Page number/s should be included if you paraphrase a passage, summarise an idea from a particular page, or you wish to direct the readers to a specific page. Page numbers should also be included when referring to a long work and the page number(s) might be useful to the reader. Page numbers are not necessary if you are referring to the entire work as a whole.

 Use p. for a single page and pp. for a range of consecutive pages.

For example:

At a macro level, negative economic impacts on non-mining sectors of the economy are commonly known as Dutch disease (Corden 2012, p. 3).

Deaton (2013, pp. 206–7) agrees that working to insure equality of opportunity is an important strategy for achieving social justice ...

Refer to these Learning Zone (Academic Skills) guides on how to use paraphrases in your work: 
Blending paraphrases into your writing

How to use paraphrases in your writing

Summarising and Paraphrasing

Citing a direct quote

You must include page number(s) in the in-text citation when incorporating a direct quotation into a sentence. Use single quotation marks to enclose short quotations (sentence fragments, a sentence or sentences with less than 30 words). Fit quotations within your sentences, making sure the sentences are grammatically correct.

Examples:

When Ladkin (2011, p. 1136) suggests that knowledge of tourism and hospitality labour ‘clearly has a contribution to make to current wider societal debates’ she is, as we are, reflecting on the shifting phenomenon of hospitality work.  

There seems to be a ‘consensus among researchers and policy makers that experiments constitute a gold standard in policy evaluation, although they are not a complete recipe for policy evaluation’ (Danielson 2007, pp. 381–382).

The Learning Zone (Academic Skills) quick guide:
Using direct quotes as evidence

Citing a block quote

A direct quote that is more than 30 words long is usually indented from the text margin in a block format and use a one size smaller font in single line spacing. Quotation marks are not needed.

Examples:

New institutional studies of organisations in the 1970s and 1980s are  largely characterised by an emphasis on diffusion, isomorphism, and decoupling:

The new institutionalism in organisation theory and sociology comprises a rejection of rational-actor models, and interest in institutions as independent variables, a turn towards cognitive and cultural explanations, and an interest in properties of supra individual units of analysis that cannot be reduced to aggregations or direct consequences of individuals' attributes or motives. (DiMaggio & Powell 1991, p. 8)

Concerns about economic inequality are tied to questions about the fairness or justice of particular distributions of wealth or income. According to Lamont and Favor (2013, p. 1):

The economic framework that each society has—its laws, institutions, policies, etc.—results in different distributions of economic benefits and burdens across members of the society. These economic frameworks are the result of human political processes and they constantly change both across societies and within societies over time... Arguments about which frameworks and/or resulting distributions are morally preferable constitute the topic of distributive justice.

The Learning Zone (Academic Skills) quick guide:
Using direct quotes as evidence

Modifying a direct quote

Ellipsis

If you need to omit a word or words from a quote, indicate this with an ellipsis (three dots) with a space before and after the ellipsis ( ... ). A direct quote should neither start nor end with an ellipsis. Words should only be omitted from a quote if they are superfluous to the reason why you are using the quote and the meaning of the quote is not affected by the change.

For example (in a block quote):

The modernist view of the individual voice has been debated:

As with an early modernist like Lautréamont ... the subject or “character” is always an unstable collective, perpetually on the make, on trial and in degeneration, as much as it is in productive process, riven by contradiction and interruption, and by virtue of the textual mosaic, it hosts a crazed polyphony with no “originary” voice. (Campbell 2014, pp.157)

Square brackets

If you need to add a word or words to a quote, or change the capitalisation of a word to fit with your syntax, put the word(s)/letter in square brackets [ ]. Words should only be added to a quote for explanatory reasons (e.g. a name might be added to explain who a pronoun is referencing).

For example:

The church is not the only setting where the soul may be nurtured, as '[t]he soul also finds sustenance in more domestic settings, like the family home' (Jones 1998, p. 89).

Sic

If you need to indicate a misspelling, grammatical error or lack of inclusive language, insert the word [sic] (meaning so or thus) in square brackets immediately following the error but do not change the error in the quote.

For example (non-inclusive language):

According to Havelock (1986, p. 63), the written word can be looked at as an extension of conversation where the author ‘writes down what he [sic] is saying so that another person can read what he [sic] says instead of just hearing it.’

For example (spelling):

The claim that ‘confiscation of these lands was both illegal and sacrilegious [sic]’ takes the approach that the church should be involved in these decisions (Hamilton & Strier 1996, p. 165).

See also the following Learning Zone (Academic Skills) quick guides:

How to include direct quotations in your writing
Blending direct quotations into your writing
How to define and use concepts in your writing

Citing sources with no date

If the publication date of a reference is unknown or unsure, cite it using n.d. (no date), e.g. (Smith n.d.) or Smith (n.d.).

If the publication date can be established with some degree of accuracy, use the abbreviation 'c' (circa-about), e.g. (Smith c.1943) or Smith (c.1943).

If the publication date is dubious, use a question mark after the date, e.g. (Smith 1943?) or Smith (1943?).

Other examples with unsure dates include:

  • a work that secured a publisher but not yet in the process of publication, e.g. (Smith forthcoming)

  • a work that is in the process of publication but the publication date is uncertain, e. (Smith in press)

Citing a source if page numbers are not available

If a source contains no page numbers, such as a webpage or online newspaper articles, do not include a page number in the relevant reference entries. For direct quotations from a source without pagination, use the major sections, headings or chapters and paragraph (para.) numbers. 

For example:

As Myers (2000, para. 5) aptly phrased it…
(Beutler, 2000, Conclusion, para. 1)

[Tip: if your resource is a journal article in html format (and therefore with no page numbers), check to see if the article is available elsewhere as a pdf. Usually, pdf documents include page numbers.]

Cite a source discussed in another source (secondary source)

Sometimes an author writes about research that someone else has done, but you are unable to track down the original report or publication. In this case, because you did not read the original publication, you will include only the source that you have used in your reference list. The words 'cited in' in the parenthetical reference indicate that you have not read the original research.

For example, if Lister cited Miller’s work in his/her research and you did not read Miller’s work, you should refer to Miller in text in the following way:

      David Miller’s simple definition of social justice (1999, cited in Lister 2007, p. 113) sums up …

In the reference list, provide the details of the article you actually used (Lister):

   Lister, R 2007, 'Social justice: meanings and politics', Benefits, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 113-25.

Citing a republished work

The date of publication used should be the date of the source you are reading. For example, although Pride and Prejudice was initially published in 1813 it is unlikely that the version you are reading was published in 1813. The publication date of the source you are reading is the date to use when citing and in your reference list.

For example:

Austen, J 1991, Pride and prejudice, Tiger, London.

Note: if the source cited is a later edition be sure to include the edition number (see examples).

Citing acronyms & abbreviated names

If the name of an authoring organisation, e.g. government agency, is long and cited often in the text, it may be necessary to abbreviate the name in the in-text citation.
The first time an acronym or abbreviated name is used, you must give the full name followed by the acronym in parenthesis.

For example:

 … (Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 1995)

  Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS, 1995) ….

You may use just the acronyms in subsequent citations.

For example:

(ABS 2014)
(ABS 2014, p.5)

List of Abbreviations & expressions

Acceptable abbreviations and expressions to use in citations and reference List include the following :

Abbreviation      Book or publication part
c circa - about
edn edition
rev. edn revised edition
2nd edn. second edition
ed. (eds.) editor (editors)
et al. and others
forthcoming a work secured a publisher
in press a work in the process of publication
trans. translator(s)
n.d. no date
n. p. no place
p., pp. page(s)
vol. volume (as in Vol. 4)
vols. volumes (as in Vols. 1-4)
no. number
pt.,pts part(s)
para., paras paragraph(s)
suppl. supplement

Harvard referencing guide - PDF version