The Harvard style uses the author date method in the text.
In-text citations can be presented in two formats:
While an activist image of workers is sometimes presented (Rodrıguez-Garavito 2005), workers are more often depicted as unwilling accomplices in factory managers’ manipulations (Ngai 2005).
In the long run, Saarinen (2006) argues, development of tourism may not always be the most favourable use of natural and cultural resources …
When a work has 2 or 3 authors, cite all the names in the order in which they appear in the reference. If you integrate the authors names into the sentence, use ‘and’ instead of the ampersand.
Learning on demand is becoming a type of lifestyle in modern society (McLoughlin & Lee 2007).
Hogg and Reid (2001) propose several social cognitive processes that may explain leadership dynamics.
Malinowski, Miller and Guota (1995) reported the same effects …
The sheer size and scale of the industry causes problems for analysis (Riley, Ladkin & Szivas, 2002).
If a work has 4 or more authors, cite only the surname of the first-listed author followed by ‘et al.’ wherever the reference occurs in the text ('et al.' is the Latin term for 'and others').
Results of the cross-national study reported by Liu et al. (1987) indicate that concerns over impacts of tourism on the environment were shared by all the residents surveyed …
A total of 38,350 visitors were recorded visiting those areas in 2004,
including tour groups (Greiner et al. 2005).
Note: Include all the author names in the reference list
Greiner, R, Larson, S, Herr, A & Pinger, P 2005, Independent travellers in the North Kimberley: benefits, impacts and management challenges, CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Davies Laboratory, viewed 18 October 2016, <http://savanna.cdu.edu.au/downloads/Kimberley%20travellers.pdf>.
When referencing two or more sources published in the same year, and all these sources have the same first author and maybe even the same second, third authors, provide the names of enough authors in the in-text citation to show the difference.
(Larour, Morlighem, et al. 2012)
(Larour, Schiermeier, et al. 2012)
(Milillo, Rignot, Mouginot, Scheuchl, Li, et al. 2017)
(Milillo, Rignot, Mouginot, Scheuchl, Morlighem, et al. 2017
When inserting two or more references at one point in the text, place them in alphabetical order by the surnames of the first authors. Separate each source by semicolons.
The pace of life is slow allowing for reflection (Hofstede 1997; House et al. 2004; Triandis 1994).
Boyer, Gibson, and Loretan (1999); Forbes and Rigobon (1999); and Stambaugh (1995) note that calculating correlations conditional on high or low returns, ...
1. Multiple sources by the same author/s - If you cite two or more works from the same author/s, arrange them in chronological order, starting with the earliest date.
This behavior is a form of confirmation bias, first identified by Wason (1960, 1966, 1968), referring to our tendency to selectively overemphasize evidence …
Confirmation bias (Wason 1960, 1966, 1968) imposes persistence on policy and entrepreneurial expectations, even in the presence of a certain amount of disconfirmation.
If a page number is included in the in-text citation, use a semicolon to separate a page number from a date following it.
(Campbell & Shiller 1987, p. 375; 1988a, p. 220)
2. Sources published by the same author in the same year - are listed alphabetically by the title of the work and a lower-case letter (a, b, c, ...) is added immediately after the date, in both the reference list and in-text citations.
Campbell and Shiller (1988b) find that E/P ratios, especially when past
earnings (E) are averaged over 10-30 years, …
… Campbell and Shiller (1988a) attempt to move the volatility tests in
When citing sources written by authors with the same surname, include the authors’ initials in in-text citations.
Different research reported the same effects occurring, regardless whether it was in lakes (Nguyen, D 2009, p. 3) or rivers (Nguyen, L 2009, p. 145).
D Nguyen (2009) and L Nguyen (2009) both reported the same effects occurring in lakes and rivers.
When the name of an author or authoring body is not shown, cite the reference by its title and the year. Use the first few words if the title is too long.
This was apparently not the case before about 1995 (The entrepreneur's guide to the law 1999).
Where the author is an organisation, use the name of the organisation as the author (corporate author).
Since the Industrial Revolution began, ocean acidity has increased by 30% (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007).
When referring to the overall content of a work, or putting information in your own words by summarising or paraphrasing, you must cite the original author or researcher and the date of publication.
Fast-paced change and complex problems can affect organizations (Wagoner 1968).
A page number may be included if you paraphrase a passage, summarise an idea from a particular page, or you wish to direct the readers to a specific page. Page numbers should also be included when referring to a long work and the page number(s) might be useful to the reader. Page numbers are not necessary if you are referring to the entire work as a whole.
Use p. for a single page and pp. for a range of consecutive pages.
At a macro level, negative economic impacts on non-mining sectors of the economy are commonly known as Dutch disease (Corden 2012, p. 3).
If the author’s name is integrated into the sentence, only the year of publication and maybe a page number are included in the brackets.
Brewer (2001) suggests that attachment to ingroups is a primary process, fundamental to individual survival and well-being.
It is essential to include the author name, publication year and page number/s when incorporating a direct quotation into a sentence. Use single quotation marks to enclose short quotations (sentence fragments or sentences which are less than 30 words). Fit quotations within your sentences, making sure the sentences are grammatically correct.
When Ladkin (2011, p. 1136) suggests that knowledge of tourism and hospitality labour ‘clearly has a contribution to make to current wider societal debates’ she is, as we are, reflecting on the shifting phenomenon of hospitality work.
A direct quote that is more than 30 words long is usually indented from the text margin in a block format and use a one size smaller font in single line spacing. Quotation marks are not needed.
New institutional studies of organisations in the 1970s and 1980s are largely characterised by an emphasis on diffusion, isomorphism, and decoupling:
The new institutionalism in organisation theory and sociology comprises a rejection of rational-actor models, and interest in institutions as independent variables, a turn towards cognitive and cultural explanations, and an interest in properties of supra individual units of analysis that cannot be reduced to aggregations or direct consequences of individuals' attributes or motives. (DiMaggio & Powell 1991, p. 8)
See also the following Academic Skills quick guide:
Using direct quotes as evidence
If you need to omit a word or words from a quote, indicate this with an ellipsis (three dots) with a space before and after the ellipsis ( ... ). A direct quote should neither start nor end with an ellipsis. Words should only be omitted from a quote if they are superfluous to the reason why you are using the quote and the meaning of the quote is not affected by the change.
For example (in a block quote):
The modernist view of the individual voice has been debated:
As with an early modernist like Lautréamont ... the subject or “character” is always an unstable collective, perpetually on the make, on trial and in degeneration, as much as it is in productive process, riven by contradiction and interruption, and by virtue of the textual mosaic, it hosts a crazed polyphony with no “originary” voice. (Campbell 2014, pp.157)
If you need to add a word or words to a quote, or change the capitalisation of a word to fit with your syntax, put the word(s)/letter in square brackets [ ]. Words should only be added to a quote for explanatory reasons (e.g. a name might be added to explain who a pronoun is referencing).
The church is not the only setting where the soul may be nurtured, as '[t]he soul also finds sustenance in more domestic settings, like the family home' (Jones 1998, p. 89).
If you need to indicate a misspelling, grammatical error or lack of inclusive language, insert the word [sic] (meaning so or thus) in square brackets immediately following the error but do not change the error in the quote.
For example (non-inclusive language):
According to Havelock (1986, p. 63), the written word can be looked at as an extension of conversation where the author ‘writes down what he [sic] is saying so that another person can read what he [sic] says instead of just hearing it.’
For example (spelling):
The claim that ‘confiscation of these lands was both illegal and sacrilegious [sic]’ takes the approach that the church should be involved in these decisions (Hamilton & Strier 1996, p. 165).
See also the following Academic Skills quick guides:
If the publication date of a reference is unknown or unsure, cite it using n.d. (no date), e.g. (Smith n.d.) or Smith (n.d.).
If the publication date can be established with some degree of accuracy, use the abbreviation 'c' (circa-about), e.g. (Smith c.1943) or Smith (c.1943).
If the publication date is dubious, use a question mark after the date, e.g. (Smith 1943?) or Smith (1943?).
Other examples with unsure dates include:
a work that secured a publisher but not yet in the process of publication, e.g. (Smith forthcoming)
a work that is in the process of publication but the publication date is uncertain, e. (Smith in press)
If a source contains no page numbers, such as a webpage or online newspaper articles, do not include a page number in the in-text citations. However, if the source indicates paragraph numbers, use the abbreviation “para” and the relevant number in the parentheses. If the paragraph number is not visible, cite the heading and the paragraph number following it.
As Myers (2000, para. 5) aptly phrased it…
(Beutler, 2000, Conclusion, para. 1)
[Tip: if your resource is a journal article in html format (and therefore with no page numbers), check to see if the article is available elsewhere as a pdf. Usually, pdf documents include page numbers.]
Sometimes an author writes about research that someone else has done, but you are unable to track down the original report or publication. In this case, because you did not read the original publication, you will include only the source that you have used in your reference list. The words 'cited in' in the parenthetical reference indicate that you have not read the original research.
For example, if Lister cited Miller’s work in his/her research and you did not read Miller’s work, you should refer to Miller in text in the following way:
David Miller’s simple definition of social justice (1999, cited in Lister 2007, p. 113) sums up …
In the reference list, provide the details of the article you actually used (Lister):
Lister, R 2007, 'Social justice: meanings and politics', Benefits, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 113-25.
The date of publication used should be the date of the source you are reading. For example, although Pride and Prejudice was initially published in 1813 it is unlikely that the version you are reading was published in 1813. The publication date of the source you are reading is the date to use when citing and in your reference list.
Austen, J 1991, Pride and prejudice, Tiger, London.
Note: if the source cited is a later edition be sure to include the edition number (see examples).
Acceptable abbreviations and expressions to use in citations and reference List include the following :
|Abbreviation||Book or publication part|
|c||circa - about|
|rev. edn||revised edition|
|2nd edn.||second edition|
|ed. (eds.)||editor (editors)|
|et al.||and others|
|forthcoming||a work secured a publisher|
|in press||a work in the process of publication|
|n. p.||no place|
|vol.||volume (as in Vol. 4)|
|vols.||volumes (as in Vols. 1-4)|