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Harvard Referencing Guide

Books: formats & examples

1 author or editor

If you are dealing with one editor instead of one author, for the reference list entry, you would simply insert the editor's name in the place where the author's name is now, followed by '(ed)' without the quotation marks.  The rest of the format would remain the same.
 
General Format
 
In-Text Citation: 
(Author Surname Year)
(Author Surname Year, page number)
 
References:
Author Surname, Initial(s) Year, Book title, Publisher, Place of Publication.
    
Example 1 - 1 author
 
In-Text Citation: 
(Tracy 2011)
(Tracy 2011, p. 31)
 
References:
Tracy, B 2011, Full engagement!: inspire, motivate, and bring out the best in your people, AMACOM, New York.

 

Example 2 - 1 editor
 
In-Text Citation: 
(Jalilvand 2012)
(Jalilvand 2012, p. 64)

References:
Jalilvand, A (ed.) 2012, Risk management and corporate governance, Routledge, New York.
 

2 authors or editors 

If you are dealing with two editors instead of authors, for the reference list entry, you would simply insert the names of the editors into the place where the authors' names are now, followed by "(eds.)" without the quotation marks (see Example 2).  The rest of the format would remain the same.
 
General Format
 
In-Text Citation: 
(Author Surname & Author Surname Year)
(Author Surname & Author Surname Year, page number)
 
When authors’ names are incorporated into the text, use ‘and’ instead of the ampersand:
Author Surname and Author Surname (Year) ...
Author Surname and Author Surname (Year, page number) ... 
 
References:
Author Surname, Initial(s) & Author Surname, Initial(s) Year, Book title, Publisher, Place of Publication.
  
 
Example 1 - 2 authors
 

In-Text Citation : 
(Abigail & Cahn 2011)
(Abigail & Cahn 2011, p. 23)

Abigail and Cahn (2011) ...
Abigail and Cahn (2011, p. 23) ...
 
References:
Abigail, R & Cahn, D 2011, Managing conflict through communication, 4th edn, Allyn & Bacon, Boston.


Example 2 - 2 editors 

 

In-Text Citation : 
(Hanrahan & Jacobs 2005)
(Hanrahan & Jacobs 2005, p. 23)

Hanrahan and Jacobs (2005) ...
Hanrahan and Jacobs (2005, p. 23) ...
 
References:

Hanrahan, NW & Jacobs, MD (eds.) 2005, The Blackwell companion to the sociology of culture, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, Mass. 

 

3 authors or editors

If you are dealing with three editors instead of authors, for the reference list entry, you would simply insert the names of the editors into the place where the authors' names are now, followed by "(eds.)" without the quotation marks (see Example 2).  The rest of the format would remain the same.
 
General Format
 
In-Text Citation: 
(Author Surname, Author surname & Author Surname Year)
(Author Surname, Author surname & Author Surname Year, page number)
 
When authors’ names are incorporated into the text, use ‘and’ instead of the ampersand:
Author Surname, Author surname and Author Surname (Year) ...
Author Surname, Author surname and Author Surname (Year, page number) ...
 
References:
Author Surname, Initial(s), Author Surname, Initial(s) & Author Surname, Initial(s) Year, Book title, Publisher, Place of Publication.
    
Example 1 - 3 authors
 
In-Text Citation:

(Holland, Crossley & Yap 2014)
(Holland, Crossley & Yap 2014, p. 45)

Holland, Crossley and Yap (2014) ...
Holland, Crossley and Yap (2014, p. 45) ...

References:
Holland, G, Crossley, K & Yap, W 2014, Social media law and marketing: fans, followers and online infamy, Lawbook Co., Pyrmont, NSW.
   
Example 2 - 3 editors
 
In-Text Citation:

(O'Reilly, Rentschler & Kirchner 2014)
(O'Reilly, Rentschler & Kirchner 2014, p. 108)

O'Reilly, Rentschler and Kirchner  (2014) ...
O'Reilly, Rentschler and Kirchner (2014, p. 108) ... 

References: O'Reilly, D, Rentschler, R & Kirchner, TA (eds) 2014, The Routledge companion to arts marketing, Routledge, New York.

4+ authors or editors

If you are dealing with a book that has 4 or more editors instead of authors, for the reference list entry, you would simply insert the names of the editors into the place where the authors' names are now, followed by '(eds.)' without the quotation marks (as per Example 2).  The rest of the format would remain the same.
 
General Format 
 
In-Text Citation: 
(Surname of first listed author et al. Year)
(Surname of first listed author et al. Year, page number)
 
References:
Author Surname, Initial(s), Author Surname, Initial(s), Author Surname, Initial(s) & Author Surname, Initial(s) Year, Book title, edition, Publisher, Place of Publication.
Note: The names of all authors should be provided in the reference list (do not use et al).     
    
Example 1 - 4 or more authors
 
In-Text Citation: 
(Kotler et al. 2010)
(Kotler et al. 2010, p. 59)
 
References:
Kotler, P, Brown, L, Burton, S, Deans, KR & Armstrong, G 2010, Marketing, 8th edn, Pearson Australia, French Forest, NSW.
 
Example 2 - 4 or more editors
 
In-Text Citation: 
(Gartner et al. 204)
(Gartner et al. 2004, p. 88)
 
References:

Gartner, WB, Shaver, KG, Carter, NM & Reynolds, PD (eds.) 2004, Handbook of entrepreneurial dynamics: the process of business creation, Sage, Thousand Oaks.

No author

When a source has no identifiable author, cite in the text the title of the source and the year. Italicise the title of the book, ebook, or dictionary. Use the first few words if the title is too long.  

No Author General Format 
 
In-Text Citation: 
(Book title [usually shortened] Year)
(Book title [usually shortened] Year, page number)
 
References:
Book title Year,  Publisher, Place of Publication.
    
No Author Example
 
In-Text Citation: 
(Webster's 2000)
(Webster's 2000, p. 3)
 
References:
Webster's basic English dictionary 2000,  Merriam-Webster, Springfield, MA.

Editions other than the first

Reprinted publications or republished works (e.g. a printing of Shakespeare published in 2016) typically would not need edition numbers but the date used is the publication date of the source you are citing.
 
Any edition other than the first is noted after the title of the book:
Second edition = 2nd edn
Third edition = 3rd edn
Fourth edition = 4th edn
Revised edition = edn, rev.
 
General Format 
 
In-Text Citation: 
(Author Surname Year)
(Author Surname Year, page number)
 
References:
Author Surname, Initial(s) Year, Book title, edition, Publisher, Place of Publication.
   
Example
 
In-Text Citation: 
(Buglear 2010)
(Buglear 2010, p. 39)
 
References:
Buglear, J 2010, Stats mean business, 2nd edn, Butterworth-Heinemann, Burlington, MA.
 

Article or chapter in an edited book

General Format 
 
In-Text Citation: 
(Author Surname [of Chapter or Article] Year)
(Author Surname [of Chapter or Article] Year, page number)
 
References (Quotation):
Author Surname [of Chapter or Article], Initial(s) Year, 'Article or chapter title', in Initial(s) Editor Surname (ed.), Book title,  Publisher, Place of Publication, pp. page range of article or chapter).
    
Example
 
In-Text Citation:
(Bilgihan 2012)
(Bilgihan 2012, p. 235)
 
References:
Bilgihan, A 2012, 'An exploration of wine blog communication patterns', in M Sigala, E Christou & U Gretzel (eds), Social media in travel, tourism and hospitality: theory, practice and cases, Ashgate Publishing, Farnham, England, pp. 225-38.
 

Dictionary or encyclopedia

Example   Dictionary or encyclopedia entry with no author
 
If no author is identified, cite the title (italicised) and year of the dictionry or ecyclopedia in the text. No need to include the encyclopedia or dictionary in the reference list.
In-Text Citation:
   The Collins dictionary of business (2002) defines corporate governance as … 

General Format   Article in an encyclopedia
 
In-Text Citation: 
(Author Surname Year)
(Author Surname Year, page number)
 
References:
Author Surname [of Article], Initial(s) Year, 'Article title', in Editor First Initial(s) Surname (ed.), Reference book title (ed. edition), vol., Publisher, Place of Publication, page range of article.
    
Example Article in an encyclopedia (print)
 
In-Text Citation:
(Lindgren 1994)
(Lindgren 1994, p. 468)
 
References:
Lindgren, H 1994, 'Stereotyping', in RJ Corsini & A Anastasi (eds), Encyclopedia of psychology, 2nd edn, vol. 3, Wiley, New York, pp. 468-9.

 

Example  Article in an online encyclopedia
 
In-Text Citation:
(Truncellito n.d.)
 
References:
Truncellito, DA n.d., 'Epistemology', in Internet encyclopedia of philosophy, viewed 28 May 2017, <https://www.iep.utm.edu/epistemo/>. 

E-book

If an ebook is readily available still in print form (as the majority of our ebrary and EBL titles are), then you can reference an ebook as a print book. The publishing details will be on the usual pages inside the ebook. If it is an ebook that is not available in print form, or has been re-formatted in text or HTML format (losing the original page format view), then reference as below.
 
General Format 
 
In-Text Citation
(Author Surname Year)
(Author Surname Year, page number if available)
     
References:
Author Surname, Initial(s) Year, Book title, edition/version, Publisher, place (or name and place of the sponsor of the source), viewed Day Month Year, <URL either full location details or just the main site details>.
    
Example
 
In-Text Citation:
(Lipman 1918)
(Lipman 1918, p. 28)
 
References:

Lipman, FL 1918, Creating capital: money-making as an aim in business, Project Gutenberg, viewed 25 February 2012, <http://www.gutenberg.org/files/29673/29673-h/29673-h.htm>.

McMeekin, A, Tomlinson, M, Green, K & Walsh, V (eds) 2002, Innovation by demand: an interdisciplinary approach to the study of demand and its role in innovation, Manchester University Press, Manchester, UK, viewed 27 August 2015, <https://www.doabooks.org/doab?func=fulltext&uiLanguage=en&rid=12671>.

 

Kindle books and books on E-readers

Citing page numbers in direct quotes: books on Kindle or eReaders often do not have page numbers and some kindle books have location numbers which are static but useless to others without a kindle. For direct quotations from a kindle or eReader books without pagination, we recommend the use of major sections or chapters and paragraph numbers. 
General Format 
 
In-Text Citation
(Author Surname Year)
(Author Surname Year, page/chapter)
     
References:
Author Surname, Initial(s) Year, Book title, ereader edition, Publisher, Place (if applicable), viewed Day Month Year, <URL>..
    
Example
 
In-Text Citation:
(Nietzsche 2017)
(Nietzsche 2017, chapter 1, para. 2)
 
References:

Nietzsche, F 2017, Beyond good and evil, Kindle edition, AmazonClassics, Seattle, viewed 18 August 2019, <https://www.amazon.com.au/>.

Book- part of a series

When a book is part of a series, provide the series title after the book title. Editions other than the first is noted after the title of the series.

General Format
 
In-Text Citation: 
(Author Surname Year)
(Author Surname Year, page number)
 
When authors’ names are incorporated into the text, use ‘and’ instead of the ampersand:
Author Surname (Year) ...
Author Surname (Year, page number) ... 
 
References:
Author Surname, Initial(s) Year, Book title, Series title Publisher, Place of Publication.
  
 
Example 1
 

In-Text Citation : 
(Saad 2007)
(Saad 2007, p. 89)

References:
Saad, G 2007, The evolutionary bases of consumption, Marketing and consumer psychology series, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, New Jersey.


Example 2

In-Text Citation : 

(Pugel 2009)
(Pugel 2009, p. 55)

References:

Pugel, TA 2009, International economics, The McGraw-Hill series in economics, 14th edn, McGraw-Hill Irwin, Boston. 

 

Translations

For a translation, cite the work using the author's name and acknowledge the the translator in the reference list. 
 
General Format 
 
In-Text Citation: 
(Author Surname Year)
(Author Surname Year, page number)
 
References:
Author Surname, Initial(s) Year, Book title, trans. Translator Initial(s) Surname, Publisher, Place of Publication.
    
Example
 
In-Text Citation:
(Mandel 1971)
(Mandel 1971, p. 112) 
 
References:

Mandel, E 1971, The formation of the economic thought of Karl Marx, 1843 to Capital, trans. B Pearce, Monthly Review Press, New York.

 

Plays and Poetry

General Format (Play or Poem)
Note: In the reference list, plays and poems should be referenced similar to a book or book chapter (depending if the entire work is a single publication or part of a compilation or anthology.
 
In-Text Citation: 
 
(Author Surname Year, act #, scene # (or verse #), line(s) #)
 
References:
Plays and poems should be referenced similar to a book or book chapter (depending if the entire work is a single publication or part of a compilation or anthology.
 
Author Surname, Initial(s) Year, Book title, Publisher, Place of Publication.
Author Surname [of Poem or Play], Initial(s) Year, 'Poem or play title', in Initial(s) Editor Surname (ed.), Compilation title, Publisher, Place of Publication, pp. page range of article or chapter).
    
Examples (Play or Poem)
 
In-Text Citation:
(Poe 2012, verse 8, line 6)
(Shakespeare 1992, act 2, scene 2, lines 701-3) 
 
References:

Poe EA 2012, ‘The raven’, in SR Dziemianowicz(ed.), Essential tales and poems: Edgar Allan Poe, Sterling Publishing, New York, pp. 54-6.

Shakespeare W 1992, Macbeth, Macmillan, Basingstoke.

 

Classics

General Format (Classic work)
Note:  The date is not included in the in-text citation. For reference list entry, the date is at the end instead of immediately following the author.
 
In-Text Citation: 
(Authorstanza (or book #), line(s) #)
 
References:
Author, Classic title, trans. Translator initials Translator surname, Publisher, Location, Date
    
Examples (Classic work)
 
In-Text Citation:
(Homer, book 11, lines 164-170) 
 
References:

Homer, Odyssey, trans. EV Rieu, rev. trans. DCH Rieu, Penguin, London, 2003.

 

How to videos

About citing books

Basic elements needed to reference a book:

  • Author (Surname, Initial/s)
  • Year of publication
  • Title
  • Edition (other than the first edition)
  • Publisher
  • Place of Publication

For books with multiple authors, edited books, e-books and chapter in an edited book and other variations, see the specific examples at this page.

Harvard referencing guide - PDF version