The purpose of footnotes is to acknowledge the authority for a statement and provide enough information to enable a reader to find the original source. All sources of information, whether quoted directly or paraphrased, are cited in footnotes. Footnotes are provided in text with corresponding references at the bottom of each page of your assignment.
After the full stop.1
After other punctuation such as a comma,1 if applicable.
Personal Injuries Proceeding Act 2002 (Qld); Civil Liability Act 2003 (Qld).
To add footnotes to your Word document:
A pinpoint is a reference to a specific page, paragraph or other section of a resource. Pinpoints are placed at the end of the reference.
HLA Hart, The concept of Law (Clarendon Press, 1970) 15.
Lancaster v Foxtel Management Pty Ltd  NSWSC 929, .
Davis v Gertig [No 2] (2002) 83 SASR 521, 528 .
Gordon Goldberg, 'Confusions Concerning Common Count'  Restitution Law Review 189, 67.
Wurridjal v Commonwealth (2009) 237 CLR 390, 389–90.
NOTE: When there is a span of page numbers refer to the minimum number of digits ie: 388–90. Except, paragraphs numbers should appear in full enclosed in square brackets eg: – (AGLC4 rule 1.10.1).
The name of the author should appear exactly as it does on the title page of the source (AGLC4 rule 4.1.1).
eg John Smith
eg JA Smith
eg JA Smith and BE Jones
eg JA Smith et al
Paterson, Robertson and Duke, Principles (n18) 2 [1.50].
Paterson, Robertson and Duke, Cases (n14) 41 [3.50].
eg BE Jones (ed)
For bibliography entries invert the first and last name of the first author of the source
e.g. Smith, JA and BE Jones.
All case names, statute titles, treaty titles, journal titles and other titles as specified should be be italicised in the text, quotations, footnotes and bibliography unless otherwise stated (AGLC4 rule 1.8.2).
Titles of book chapters and journal articles appear unitalicised and in single quotation marks (AGLC4 rule 5.2; rule 6.6.1).
Titles of secondary sources should appear as they do in the original source except:
1 FA Trindade and HP Lee (eds), The Constitution of Malaysia: Further Perspectives and Developments (Oxford University Press, 1986).
2 Adam Webster, 'Sharing Water from Transboundary Rivers in Australia: An Interstate Common Law?' (2015) 39(1) Melbourne University Law Review 263.
3 R v Tang (2008) 237 CLR 1, 7.
4 Civil Liability Act 2003 (Qld) s 15.
If a source immediately following a footnote is the same then you can use 'Ibid'. Where the pinpoint differs, provide the new pinpoint:
eg Ibid 65-67.
Note: use Rule 1.4.1 rather than Ibid if:
If a source has been referred to in an earlier footnote you can use a shortened form of the reference with a cross reference to the footnote where it can be found:
Jones (n 3) 14.
Tasmanian Dam Case (n 12).
1 Eric Berendt, Freedom of Speech (Oxford University Press, 2nd ed, 2005) 163.
3 Ibid 174-5.
4 Catherine Macmillan, Mistakes in Contract Law (Hart Publishing, 2010) 9.
5 Administrative Decisions (Judicial Review) Act 1977 (Cth) s 37 ('ADJR Act').
6 MacMillan (n 48) 41.
7 ADJR Act (n 63) s 5 (2).
Use a short title in subsequent references to a source in text or footnotes, unless the footnote is the same as that immediately preceding it (use Ibid instead). Introduce the short title in inverted commas and parentheses (AGLC4 rule 1.4.4).
This was cited in the decisione Pape v Federal Commissioner of Taxation ('Pape').1
1 Pape v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (2009) 238 CLR 1 ('Pape')
2 Kim Rubenstein, 'Meanings of Membership: Mary Gaudron's Contributions to Australian Citizenship' (2004) 15(4) Public Law Review 305, 310 ('Meanings of Membership').
NOTE: Only italicise titles if they should be italicised according to Rule 1.8.2.
Cite the original text where possible. Otherwise provide as full a reference to the original text as you can and use the words 'quoted in', 'cited in' or 'discussed in' before referring to the secondary text.
1 Mason v Freedman  SCR 483, quoted in Shelanu Inc v Print Three Franchising Corporation (2003) 64 OR (3d) 533, 556.
2 Sandy Steel, 'On When Fairchild Applies' (2015) 131(3) Law Quarterly Review 363, 364, cited in Caason Investments Pty Ltd v Cao (2015) 236 FCR 322, 357  (Edelman J).
Only use full stops to mark the end of a sentence or footnote. Do not use full stops in:
Omit full stops that do not follow these rules in a quotation or elements of a citation.
An em-dash (—) can be used to indicate an interruption within a sentence, in place of a colon, or on both sides of a parenthetical remark or apposition.
An en-dash (–) may be used to indicate a span between numbers or indicate a tension or disjunction between two concepts.
Use a forward slash (/) to separate alternatives.
Use a hyphen (-) to connect parts of a compound word. Only hyphenate a word if it appears as such in the Macquarie Dictionary (AGLC4, rule 1.9.1).
Use square brackets to indicate an adjustment to a quotation or enclose comments that did not appear in the original text, but aid comprehension
eg As Kirby J notes, '[t]he Minister did not appoint [Justice Mathews] as a reporter until her consent was first signified'.
Quotations may be used in the body of the text and in footnotes. If a sentence runs seamlessly into the quotation do not use punctuation. Use a colon if the quotation does not fit seamlessly into the sentence (AGLC4 rule 1.5.2).
It was held that in respect of vending machines, 'the offer is made when the proprietor of the machine holds it out as being ready to receive money'.1
indented from the left margin
in a smaller font
without quotation marks.
The Judge stated that
While malicious conduct may entitle the successful party to an award of exemplary damages, the absence of malice does not necessarily disentitle an award of that nature. Depending on the circumstances, the type of conduct necessary to justify an award of exemplary damages may be founded on contumelious behaviour which falls short of being malicious or which is not aptly described in those terms. The plaintiff submits that exemplary damages may also be awarded 'as a means of ensuring that those responsible for overseeing the Police force ensure that officers are trained so that abuses do not happen again', relying on Cunningham v Traynor.13
Words should be capitalised where:
In titles and headings capitalise the:
Other notes on capitalisation:
See rule 1.7 for a full list of all words that should be capitalised.
You will need to include a bibliography in your assignment, unless instructed otherwise. Your bibliography includes all sources you read, not just those referred to in your assignment and footnotes.
Divide your bibliography by source type using the following sections (AGLC4 Rule 1.13):
Only use headings that are relevant to the sources you have used. If you do not include a source type, change the lettering to be in correct ascending order eg:
In your bibliography:
list the sources under each heading in alphabetical order according to the surname of the first-listed author, or title where there is no author
the first-listed author's name and surname should be inverted and separated with a comma
do not include pinpoint references
do not include full stops at the end of the citation.
TIP: 'Other' can include:
Davies, Martin and Ian Malkin, Torts (LexisNexis Butterworths, 6th ed, 2012)
Feinberg, Joel, The Moral Limits of the Criminal Law (Oxford University Press, 1984-88) vol 4
Galloway, Kate and Jemima McGrath, 'Reproductive justice: A framework for abortion law reform' (2018) 43(4) Alternative Law Journal, 295
Gough, William, 'Securities over Debts' in Gregory Burton (ed), Directions in Finance Law (Butterworths, 1990) 220
Hedges, Jasper et al, 'The potential economic gains from increasing public law enforcement against illegal phoenix activity' (2018) 44(1) Monash University Law Review 267
Krebs, Shiri, Ingrid Nielsen and Russell Smyth, ‘What Determines the Institutional Legitimacy of the High Court of Australia?’ (2019) 43(2) Melbourne University Law Review (advance)
Australian Woollen Mills Pty Ltd v The Commonwealth (1953) 92 CLR 424
Donoghue v Stevenson  AC 562
Dunleavy v Peak  NSWCA 72
Kriz v King  1 Qd R 327
Ross v Chambers (Unreported, Supreme Court of the Northern Territory, Kriewaldt J, 5 April 1956)
Civil Liability Act 2002 (NSW)
Civil Liability Regulation 2003 (Qld)
Constitution of Queensland 2001 (Qld)
Defamation Bill 2005 (Qld)
Wrongs Act 1958 (Vic)
Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, opened for signature 18 December 1979,  ATS 9 (entered into force 18 September 1981)
Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, opened for signature 22 December 1994,  ATS 3 (entered into force 15 January 1999)
Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community, opened for signature 25 March 1957, 298 UNTS (entered into force 1 January 1958)
Australian Law Reform Commission, Elder Abuse (Discussion Paper No 83, December 2016)
@AustLII, (Twitter, 10 December 2018, 8.26pm) <https://twitter.com/austlii/status/1072333780755591169>
Almqvist, Jessica, 'Global Judicial Governance of Cultural Diversity: The Role of the European Judge' (Conference Paper, European Society of International Law Annual Conference, 31 December 2015)
Attorney General's Dept (Cth), 'Copyright Reform and the Digital Agenda' (Discussion Paper, July 1997) <http://law.gov.au/publications/digital.htm>
Bell, Virginia, 'Section 80: The Great Constitutional Tautology' (Lucinda Lecture, Monash University, 24 October 2013)
Bowcott, Owen, ‘Trolling Legislation Needs to Be Simplified, says Law Commission’, The Guardian (online, 13 July 2016) <https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/jul/13/trolling-legislation-needs-to-be-simplified-says-law-commission>
Butt, P and P Nygh (eds), LexisNexis Concise Australian Legal Dictionary (online at 20 October, 2018)
Carter, JW, LexisNexis, Carter on Contract (online at 20 July 2018)
CCH, Australian Intellectual Property Commentary (online at 12 April 2018)
Community Law Australia, Unaffordable and Out of Reach: The Problem of Access to the Australian Legal System (Report, July 2012)
Dibben, Kay, ‘An Unhealthy Culture Tribunal’s Chief Sacked for Speaking Out’, The Courier Mail (Brisbane, 29 December 2018)
‘Episode Three’, When They See Us (Netflix, 2019)
Explanatory Notes, Personal Injuries Proceedings Bill 2002 (Qld)
‘Family Violence Killing Found to be a Workplace Death’, The Law Report (ABC National Radio, 21 July 2020) <https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/lawreport/family-violence-killing-found-to-be-aworkplace-death/12448338>
Gans, Jeremy, 'News: The Court Reveals a Legal Scandal', Opinions on High (Blog Post, 3 December 2018) <http://blogs.unimelb.edu.au/opinionsonhigh/2018/12/03/news-the-court-reveals-a-legal-scandal>
Legally Blonde (Metro Goldwyn Mayer, 2001)
LexisNexis, Encyclopaedic Australian Legal Dictionary (online at 20 February 2018)
LexisNexis Butterworths, Civil Procedure Queensland, vol 1 (at Service 82)
Macquarie Library, Macquarie Dictionary (7th ed, 2018)
Mobil Oil Australia, Submission No 25 to Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Inquiry into the Price of Unleaded Petrol (27 July 2007)
New South Wales, Parliamentary Debates, Legislative Assembly, 15 December 1909
Peatling, Stephanie, 'Female Chief Justice Rewrites the Script', The Age (Melbourne, 31 January 2017) 6
Potter, Michelle, ‘Social Policy during the 1990's’ (PhD Thesis, Southern Cross University, 2015)
Queensland Government, 'Wellness Planning Resources', Healthier Happier Workplaces (Web Page, 18 January 2019) <https://workplaces.healthier.qld.gov.au/public-resources>
Royal Commission into Trade Union Governance and Corruption (Final Report, December 2015) vol 2
Thomson Reuters, Laws of Australia (online at 15 February 2018)
This guide is not exhaustive. Consult the full AGLC4 manual for full information.
When a source is not included in this guide or the AGLC4, adapt the reference from a similar source.
When adapting a reference the AGLC4 recommends being: