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Reflective Practice

Bass's Holistic Reflection Model

This Holistic Reflection Model is the one that midwifery students will be using, from 2018.

Bass's Holistic Reflection Model

Bass, J, Fenwick, J., & Sidebotham, M. (2017). Development of a model of holistic reflection to facilitate transformative learning in student midwives. Women and Birth, 30(3), 227-235. doi:10.1016/j.wombi.2017.02.010

John's model of reflection (1994)

The following cues are offered to help practitioners to access, make sense of, and learn through experience.


  • Write a description of the experience
  • What are the key issues within this description that I need to pay attention to?


  • What was I trying to achieve?
  • Why did I act as I did?
  • What are the consequences of my actions?
    • For the patient and family
    • For myself
    • For people I work with?
  • How did I feel about this experience when it was happening?
  • How did the patient feel about it?
  • How do I know how the patient felt about it?

Influencing factors

  • What internal factors influenced my decision-making and actions?
  • What external factors influenced my decision-making and actions?
  • What sources of knowledge did or should have influenced my decision making and actions?
  • Alternative strategies
  • Could I have dealt better with the situation?
  • What other choices did I have?
  • What would be the consequences of these other choices?


  • How can I make sense of this experience in light of past experience and future practice?
  • How do I NOW feel about this experience?
  • Have I taken effective action to support myself and others as a result of this experience?
  • How has this experience changed my way of knowing in practice?

Further Reading
Johns, C. (1994). Nuances of reflection. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 3, 71-75.

Model of reflection for midwifery practice

This reflective cycle is a useful tool to guide your reflection:

1. Identifying a situation in practice >>> 2. Reflecting: Focus on feelings and behaviour >>> 3. Understanding: Feelings are motivators of behaviour >>> 4. Identifying learning needs: Consider knowledge, attitude, skills >>> 5. Taking action to meet own learning needs >>> 6. Developing a plan to change action.

Atkins and Murphy's model of reflection (1994)

Atkins, S., & Murphy, K. (1994). Reflective Practice. Nursing Standard, 8(39), 49-56.

Gibbs' model of reflection (1988)

Gibbs, G. (1988). Learning by doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. Oxford: Further Education Unit, Oxford Polytechnic.