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Printable SCU Harvard Referencing Guide


Please note that this printable version is only as recent as when it was printed and is almost 70 pages long.

Video tutorials found on the web-based guide are not on this printed version.


Southern Cross University Harvard Referencing Guide

This style guide is based on the Australian Government Style Manual, which replaces the Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002, 6th edn. revised by Snooks & Co.

There is a summary document below which compares the changes between this updated version and the previous version from Snooks & Co.

Harvard and Endnote

If you are using the updated Harvard style in Endnote, please be aware Endnote does not allow for hyperlinking of electronic sources. We recommend saving the URL in the correct field in Endnote and adding the hyperlink later to your reference in Word (after you have converted to plain text).

Once you have finished the document and converted it to plain text prior to submission, you can use the URL from the reference to hyperlink the title (and remove it from the end of the reference).

What is referencing?

Referencing, or citing, acknowledges the sources of information you have used to complete your assignments and is an essential component of academic writing. 

You are required to reference any information, ideas or data that are not your own, including when you have:

  • quoted another author, word for word
  • paraphrased or summarised information
  • defined terms
  • used tables, statistics or diagrams from a source
Learning Zone Resources

Components of Harvard referencing style

Harvard style is an author-date referencing system. It has two components:

  1. In-text citation (Author date) (Author date:page number) - entry that appears in the body of your paper when you express the ideas of a researcher or author using your own words, or if a direct quote including a page number/ range.
  2. The reference list - a list containing the full bibliographic details of all the sources cited in your work, usually placed at the end of the document. Entries in the reference list are in alphabetical order by author names.

Author information

One author

In-text citation

Format
(Author last name Year)
Example
.....finding information (Richardson 2018) OR Richardson (2018) claimed that …

Reference list

Format
Author AA (no comma to separate family name)
Example
Richardson AJ (24 May 2018) ‘Australia imports almost all of its oil, and there are pitfalls all over the globe’, The Conversation, accessed 29 January 2020.

Two authors

In-text citation

Format
(Author last name and Author last name Year) - Use the word 'and' not '&' between names.
Example
(Black and Jacobsen 2020) OR Black and Jacobsen (2020) mention that ..

Reference List

Format
Author A and Author B
Example
Black F and Jacobsen N (4 February 2020) ACT has highest student participation and employment [media release], ACT Government, accessed 5 February 2020.

Three or more authors

In-text citation

Format
(First author last name et al. Year) OR First author last name et al. (Year)
Example
(Jackson et al. 2018) OR Jackson et al. (2018)

Reference List

Format
  • List all author names.
  • Use and between last two author names.
Example
Jackson D, Li X and Chandran P (2018) ‘Safety and equity’, Psychological Science Australia, 2(4):223-240, doi:10.1111/j.1234.5678.3456.x.

Group authors with known abbreviation

  • Use shortened forms and abbreviations in in-text citations to save space.
  • Use the shortened form in subsequent references.
  • Use the same shortened form in the reference list, followed by the spelt-out version - the user can easily find the reference but can also see the organisation’s full name.
  • Use the shortened form for the name of the website after the title. Do this even if you have not introduced the shortened form before.

In-text citation

Format
(Group author name [abbreviation] Year)
Subsequent references
(Abbreviation Year) OR Abbreviation (Year)
Example
In text citation
(Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade [DFAT] 2021) OR Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT 2021)
Subsequent citations
(DFAT 2021) or DFAT (2021)

Reference list

DFAT (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade) (2018) Fact sheets for countries and regions – India, DFAT, accessed 9 July 2021.

 

Authors with same surname

  • When citing sources written by authors with the same surname, include the authors’ initials in in-text citations.
Example
D Nguyen (2009) and L Nguyen (2009) both reported the same effects occurring in lakes and rivers.

Three or more authors, same first author

  • When referencing two or more sources published in the same year, and all these sources have the same first author and maybe even the same second, third authors, provide the names of enough authors in the in-text citation to show the difference.
Examples
(Larour, Morlighem, et al. 2012)
(Larour, Schiermeier, et al. 2012)
(Milillo, Rignot, Mouginot, Scheuchl, Li, et al. 2017)
(Milillo, Rignot, Mouginot, Scheuchl, Morlighem, et al. 2017)

Multiple works by same author(s) and same year

  • Works published in the same year by the same author are listed alphabetically by the title of the work and a lower-case letter (a, b, c, ...) is added immediately after the date, in both the reference list and in-text citations.
Example
She has written extensively on Australia – New Zealand relations (Dobell 2018a, 2018b).

Multiple works by same author

  • If you cite two or more works from the same author/s at one point in the text, arrange the sources in chronological order, starting with the earliest date.
Example
The process first identified by Watson (1960, 1966, 1968), shows..

Multiple sources cited at one point

  • When citing multiple works in the same in-text citation, use semicolons between citations. Place authors names in alphabetical order.
  • Enclose all the citations in one set of parentheses.
Example
Other researchers reported similar results (Abaza 2019; Black 2018; White and Jones 2017).

Works with no author

  • When the name of an author or authoring body is not shown, cite the reference by its title and the year. Use the first few words if the title is too long. 
Example
This was apparently not the case before about 1995 (The entrepreneur's guide to the law 1999).

Works with no publication date

  • For works without a date, write n.d. (for ‘no date’) instead of the year of publication.
Example
White and Jones (n.d.) reported similar results.
Other researchers reported similar results (White and Jones n.d.).

In-text citations

Using in-text citations

  • No specific font type or size required. Recommendations include Times New Roman, Arial, or Courier New for Windows, or Times, Helvetica, or Courier for Mac) at size 12.
  • The last name of the author(s) and the year of publication are generally needed.
  • They can appear within a sentence or at the end of a sentence before the full stop eg. .... this week (Brown 2019).
  • A page number is included for a direct quote. Place a colon directly after the year and separate multiple pages with a dash eg. (Dombrow 2014:155) or (Wardell 2018:32-33). There is no spacing between these elements. If there is no identifiable page number, provide another way for the reader to find the quoted information, eg. (heading or section name, paragraph, chapter, table or figure number).
  • if work is not yet published, use in press eg. Smith (in press).

The Learning Zone Quick Guides to Writing at University

In-text citation formats

In-text citations can be presented in two formats:

  • Information focused format - the citation is usually placed at the end of a sentence.
  • Author focused format -  the name of the author appears as part of the text, it need not be repeated in parenthetical citation. The date should immediately follow the author's name.
Example - Information focused
The wellbeing of workers is important (Rodrıguez-Garavito 2005), and managers must check in with their staff (Ngai 2005).
Example - Author focused
In the long run, Saarinen (2006) argues, development of tourism may not always be the most favourable use of natural and cultural resources …
  • If quoting and using a page number, add a colon next to the date, followed by the page number/ range.
Example
(Rodrıguez-Garavito 2005:14)
Saarinen (2006:35-36)

Citing quotations

Citing a direct quote

You must include page number(s) in the in-text citation when incorporating a direct quotation into a sentence. Use single quotation marks to enclose short quotations (sentence fragments, a sentence or sentences with less than 30 words). Fit quotations within your sentences, making sure the sentences are grammatically correct.

Examples
When Ladkin (2011:1136) suggests that knowledge of tourism and hospitality labour ‘clearly has a contribution to make to current wider societal debates’ she is, as we are, reflecting on the shifting phenomenon of hospitality work.  
There seems to be a 'consensus among researchers and policy makers that experiments constitute a gold standard in policy evaluation, although they are not a complete recipe for policy evaluation’ (Danielson 2007:381–382).

Citing a block quote

A direct quote that is more than 30 words long is usually indented from the text margin in a block format and use one size smaller font in single line spacing. Quotation marks are not needed.

Examples

New institutional studies of organisations in the 1970s and 1980s are largely characterised by an emphasis on diffusion, isomorphism, and decoupling:

The new institutionalism in organisation theory and sociology comprises a rejection of rational-actor models, and interest in institutions as independent variables, a turn towards cognitive and cultural explanations, and an interest in properties of supra individual units of analysis that cannot be reduced to aggregations or direct consequences of individuals' attributes or motives (DiMaggio and Powell 1991:8).

Modifying a direct quote

Ellipsis

If you need to omit a word or words from a quote, indicate this with an ellipsis (three dots) with a space before and after the ellipsis ( ... ). A direct quote should neither start nor end with an ellipsis. Words should only be omitted from a quote if they are superfluous to the reason why you are using the quote and the meaning of the quote is not affected by the change.

For example (in a block quote):

The modernist view of the individual voice has been debated:

As with an early modernist like Lautréamont ... the subject or “character” is always an unstable collective, perpetually on the make, on trial and in degeneration, as much as it is in productive process, riven by contradiction and interruption, and by virtue of the textual mosaic, it hosts a crazed polyphony with no “originary” voice (Campbell 2014:157).

 

Square brackets

If you need to add a word or words to a quote, or change the capitalisation of a word to fit with your syntax, put the word(s)/letter in square brackets [ ]. Words should only be added to a quote for explanatory reasons (e.g. a name might be added to explain who a pronoun is referencing).

For example:
The church is not the only setting where the soul may be nurtured, as '[t]he soul also finds sustenance in more domestic settings, like the family home' (Jones 1998:89).

Sic

If you need to indicate a misspelling, grammatical error or lack of inclusive language, insert the word [sic] (meaning so or thus) in square brackets immediately following the error but do not change the error in the quote.

For example (non-inclusive language):
According to Havelock (1986:63), the written word can be looked at as an extension of conversation where the author ‘writes down what he [sic] is saying so that another person can read what he [sic] says instead of just hearing it.’
For example (spelling):
The claim that ‘confiscation of these lands was both illegal and sacrilegious [sic]’ takes the approach that the church should be involved in these decisions (Hamilton and Strier 1996:165).

List of abbreviations and expressions

Acceptable abbreviations and expressions to use in citations and reference list include the following:
Abbreviation      Book or publication part
c circa - about
edn, edition
edn, rev, revised edition
2nd edn, second edition
2nd Aust. edn, second Australian edition
(ed) or (eds) editor or editors
et al. and others
in press a work in the process of publication
trans translator(s)
n.d. no date
n.p. no place
para., paras paragraph(s)
suppl. supplement
   
   

Author information

One author - in-text citation

Format
(Author last name Year)
Example
.....finding information (Richardson 2018) OR Richardson (2018) claimed that …

Two authors - in-text citation

Format
(Author last name and Author last name Year) - Use the word 'and' not '&' between names.
Example
(Black and Jacobsen 2020) OR Black and Jacobsen (2020) mention that ..

Three authors - in-text citation

Format
(First author last name et al. Year) OR First author last name et al. (Year)
Example
(Jackson et al. 2018) OR Jackson et al. (2018)

Group authors - in-text citation

Format 
(Group author name [abbreviation] Year)
Subsequent references
(Abbreviation Year) OR Abbreviation (Year)
Example
In text citation:
(Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade [DFAT] 2021) OR Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT 2021)

Authors with same surname - in-text citation

  • When citing sources written by authors with the same surname, include the authors’ initials in in-text citations.
Example
D Nguyen (2009) and L Nguyen (2009) both reported the same effects occurring in lakes and rivers.

Three or more authors, same first author - in-text citation

  • When referencing two or more sources published in the same year, and all these sources have the same first author and maybe even the same second, third authors, provide the names of enough authors in the in-text citation to show the difference.
Examples
(Larour, Morlighem, et al. 2012)
(Larour, Schiermeier, et al. 2012)
(Milillo, Rignot, Mouginot, Scheuchl, Li, et al. 2017)
(Milillo, Rignot, Mouginot, Scheuchl, Morlighem, et al. 2017)

Multiple works by same author(s) and same year - in-text citation

  • Works published in the same year by the same author are listed alphabetically by the title of the work and a lower-case letter (a, b, c, ...) is added immediately after the date, in both the reference list and in-text citations.
Example
She has written extensively on Australia – New Zealand relations (Dobell 2018a, 2018b).

Multiple works by same author - in-text citation

  • If you cite two or more works from the same author/s at one point in the text, arrange the sources in chronological order, starting with the earliest date.
Example
The process first identified by Watson (1960, 1966, 1968), shows..

Multiple sources cited at one point - in-text citation

  • When citing multiple works in the same in-text citation, use semicolons between citations. Place authors names in alphabetical order.
  • Enclose all the citations in one set of parentheses.
Example
Other researchers reported similar results (Abaza 2019; Black 2018; White and Jones 2017).

Works with no author - in-text citation

  • When the name of an author or authoring body is not shown, cite the reference by its title and the year. Use the first few words if the title is too long. 
Example
This was apparently not the case before about 1995 (The entrepreneur's guide to the law 1999).

Works with no publication date - in-text citation

  • For works without a date, write n.d. (for ‘no date’) instead of the year of publication.
Example
White and Jones (n.d.) reported similar results.
Other researchers reported similar results (White and Jones n.d.).

Citing a secondary source

Cite a source discussed in another source (secondary source)

Sometimes an author writes about research that someone else has done, but you are unable to track down the original report or publication. In this case, because you did not read the original publication, you will include only the source that you have used in your reference list. The words 'cited in' in the parenthetical reference indicate that you have not read the original research.

Example - If Keller cited Moran's work in his/her research and you did not read Moran’s work, you should refer to Moran in text in the following way:
David Moran’s definition of communication (2001, cited in Keller 2009:172) sums up …
In the reference list, provide the details of the article you actually used (Keller):
Kelleher T (2009) ‘Conversational voice’, Journal of Communication, 59(1):172–188, doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.01410.x.

Reference list

References or Bibliography?

References or bibliography usually appear at the end of your work. However, do you know which heading you use?

References – a list of all the references you cited in your essay, report or document. This is the heading required by the Harvard style.

Bibliography – most commonly refers to a list containing the sources used in developing a publication and any other sources the author considers might be of use or interests to readers, or including all the sources you read (but not cited) in preparing their work. This heading may be used in more substantial publications (e.g. theses, books, etc.).

Reference list

Layout

The reference list should identify an item (e.g. book, journal article, DVD, report, web document etc.) in enough details so that others can locate and consult it. The general layout for a Reference List is outlined below:

  • The reference list usually appears at the end of the document. However any appendices will appear after the reference list.
  • It is headed by the centred title References.
  • References cited in text must appear in the reference list and vice versa. The only exceptions to this rule are personal communication, dictionary and encyclopedia entries - these are also cited in text only and are not included in the reference list.

Reference entries

  • Arrange reference entries in one alphabetical sequence by the surname of the first author or organisational name, or by the first word of the title if there is no author. Ignore the words A, An, and The when alphabetising by title.
  • Start each reference with a new line, no indentation.
  • Titles should have minimal capitalisation, following this general rule: only capitalise the first letter of the first word and all proper nouns. Subtitles should be lower case except for all proper nouns. Journal titles should use maximal capitalisation (see examples).
  • Titles are italicised unless they are a component of a larger work, then the larger work is italicised and the smaller work is within single quotes (see example).
  •  Place of publication: only include the place of publication if it is useful for the reader. More info on this here. Use only the first listed place when there are multiple places of publication. If a publication place is little known or shares its name, you can add the state or country.
  • Page numbers are placed directly after a colon without any spacing and multiple pages are separated with a dash, e.g. :112 or :13-15

Author Names

  • Use only the initial(s) of the author’s given name, not the full name. No comma between surname and initial(s), no spacing between initials.
  • Two or more entries by the same author(s) - list them in chronological order with the earliest first. The name of the author can be repeated but it is preferable to use a 2-em rule (see below). Works published in the same year by the author are listed alphabetically according to the title of the work, and a lower-case letter (a, b, c, ...) is added to the date, e.g. 1988a, 1988b.

The 2-em rule

The 2-em rule is used to avoid repeating an author's name when more than one work by the same author is listed in the reference list (Style manual 2002, p. 107):

     Campbell JY and Shiller RJ (1987) 'Cointegration and tests of present value
     models', Journal of Political Economy, 95(5):1062-88.

     —— (1988a) 'The dividend-price ratio and expectations of future dividends
     and discount factors', Review of Financial Studies, 1(3):195-228.

     —— (1988b) 'Stock prices, earnings, and expected dividends', The Journal
     of Finance
, 43(3):661-76.

     —— (1991) 'Yield spreads and interest rate movements: a bird's eye view',
     The Review of Economic Studies, 58(3):495-514.

Example reference list

This is a sample references list in Harvard style,  The format of the reference list for your specific assessment tasks may differ from the sample - please follow the instructions from your lecturers.

List of abbreviations and expressions

Acceptable abbreviations and expressions to use in citations and reference list include the following:
Abbreviation      Book or publication part
c circa - about
edn, edition
edn, rev, revised edition
2nd edn, second edition
2nd Aust. edn, second Australian edition
(ed) or (eds) editor or editors
et al. and others
in press a work in the process of publication
trans translator(s)
n.d. no date
n.p. no place
para., paras paragraph(s)
suppl. supplement
   
   

Books

About citing books

Basic elements needed to reference a book

  • Author (Surname Initial/s)

  • Year of publication

  • Title

  • Edition (other than the first edition)

  • Publisher

  • Place of Publication

Only include the place of publication if it’s relevant to the reader. The place of publication may be relevant if:

  • you’re citing works with editions published in multiple locations
  • the location the book was published impacts the credibility of your work

Sometimes knowing the place of publication of the sources adds credibility to the work. For example, an Australian publication may be more credible if it cites books published in Australia. Including the publishing location clearly shows the reader where the book is from. If including the place of publication, include the city listed. 

If the place of publication doesn’t add useful information for the reader, you can omit it from your citation.

One author, two authors, three or more authors

One author

Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) Title of book: subtitle of book, Name of Publisher, Place of Publication.
In-text citation
Eades (2013) OR (Eades 2013)
Reference list
Eades D (2013) Aboriginal ways of using English, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra.

Two authors

Elements of the reference
Author A and Author B (Year) Title of book: subtitle of book, Name of Publisher, Place of Publication.
In-text citation
Strunk and White (2000) OR (Strunk and White 2000)
Reference list
Strunk W and White EB (2000) The elements of style, 4th edn, Longman, New York.

Three or more authors

Elements of the reference
Author A, Author B and Author C (Year) Title of book: subtitle of book, Name of Publisher, Place of Publication.
In-text citation
Stoll et al. (2020) OR (Stoll et al. 2020)
Reference list
Stoll Y, Kurt JL and White EB (2020) The international economy, 3rd edn, Longman, New York.

Book with organisation as author

Elements of the reference
Organisation Name or Abbreviation (Year) Title of book: subtitle of book, Name of Publisher, Place of Publication.
In-text citation
Oxford University Press (2016) OR (Oxford University Press 2016)
Reference list
Oxford University Press (2016) New Oxford style manual, Oxford University Press.

Ebook

  • If there is a DOI, you don’t need to include a publishing location.
  • If there is no DOI, reference as you would a print book.
  • As books are published in editions, you don’t need to include an accessed date.
  • How to find a DOI - You can search for a DOI by going to https://search.crossref.org/ and pasting in the article title. 

With a DOI

Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) Title of book: subtitle of book, Name of Publisher, doi:number.
In-text citation
Maddison (2013) OR (Maddison 2013)
Reference list
Maddison S (2013) Australian public policy: theory and practice, 2nd edn, Cambridge University Press, doi:10.1017/CBO9781107255920.

Without a DOI

Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) Title of book: subtitle of book, Name of Publisher, Place of publication.
Reference list
Stein-Parbury J (2013) Patient and person: interpersonal skills in nursing, 5th edn, Elsevier Australia, Sydney.

Edition other than the first

Any edition other than the first is noted after the title of the book:

  • Second edition = 2nd edn,
  • Third edition = 3rd edn,
  • Fourth edition = 4th edn,
  • Revised edition = edn, rev,
Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) Title of book: subtitle of book, X edn, Name of Publisher, Place of Publication.
In-text citation
Whitebread (2009) OR (Whitebread 2009)
Reference list
Whitebread D (2009) Design manual, 2nd edn, UNSW Press, Sydney.

Edited book

Elements of the reference
Editor E (ed) (Year) Title of book: subtitle of book, Name of Publisher, Place of Publication.
In-text citation
Carruthers (2005) OR (Carruthers 2005)
Reference list
Carruthers P (ed) (2005) The innate mind: structure and contents, Oxford University Press, New York.
Carruthers P, Laurence S, Stich S and Templeton G (eds) (2005) The innate mind: structure and contents, Oxford University Press, New York.

 

Chapter in an edited book

Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) ‘Title of chapter: subtitle of chapter’, in Editor E and Editor F (eds) Title of book: subtitle of book, Name of Publisher, Place of Publication.
In-text citation
Laurence and Margolis (2005) OR (Laurence and Margolis 2005)
Reference list
Laurence S and Margolis E (2005) ‘Number and natural language’, in Carruthers P, Laurence S and Stich S (eds) The innate mind: structure and contents, Oxford University Press, New York.

Book with author and editor listed

Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) Title of book: subtitle of book (Editor E ed), Name of Publisher, Place of Publication.
In-text citation
Shakespeare (1600/1967) ..
Reference list
Shakespeare W (1600/1967) The merchant of Venice (Moelwyn W ed), Penguin Books Ltd, Harmondsworth.

Translation of a book

Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) English title of book: subtitle of book (Translator T trans), Name of Publisher, Place of Publication.
In-text citation
  • For translated works, use the original author’s name in the in-text citation.

Backman (2015) OR (Backman 2015)
Reference list
Backman F (2015) A man called Ove: a novel (Koch H trans), Washington Square Press, New York.
Backman F and Hall F (2015) A man called Ove: a novel (Koch H and Zimmer K trans), Washington Square Press, New York.

Dictionary or encyclopedia entries

  • For dictionary or encyclopedia entries when there is no author is identified, cite the title (italicised) and year in the text. No need to include an entry in the reference list.
  • Sometimes you might want to include a more detailed entry, and so would cite it according to the source type (book, chapter, web page) and include it in the reference list.
Example - in-text citation only
The Australian concise Oxford dictionary (ACOD) (2017) defines it as ...

Book - part of a series

  • When a book is part of a series, provide the series title after the book title. Editions other than the first is noted after the title of the series.
Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) Book title, Series title, Publisher, Place of Publication.
In-text citation
(Saad 2007) OR Saad (2007:16)
Reference list
Saad G (2007) The evolutionary bases of consumption, Marketing and consumer psychology series, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, New Jersey.
Pugel TA (2009) International economics, The McGraw-Hill series in economics, 14th edn, McGraw-Hill Irwin, Boston.

Plays or poetry

Plays

  • Use the edition of the play you cited. If the play was written well before the edition, place the original date in parentheses with the edition’s publishing date.
Elements of the reference
Author A (Year of Original Publication/Year of Edition) Title of play: subtitle of play, Name of Publisher of Edition, Place of Publication.
In-text citation
  • Include a page number after a colon if you’re citing a specific page. Use the original and edition dates if citing an old work.
(Murray-Smith 2002:5)
(Ross 1979:15)
(Yeats 1892/2018)
Reference list
Murray-Smith J (2002) Rapture, Currency Press, Sydney.
Ross K (1979) Breaker Morant: a play in two acts, Edward Arnold Pty Ltd, Melbourne.
Yeats WB (1892/2018) The Countess Cathleen: a play, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, Scotts Valley.

Citing reviews of plays

  • Follow the rules of citation for the source (for example, a newspaper) that published the review. Use italics for the title of the play.
Elements of the reference
Reviewer R (Day Month Year) ‘Title of review: subtitle of review’ [Review of Title of work by Creator], Name of Blog, Newspaper or Magazine, accessed Day Month Year.
Reference list
Wilkins P (5 April 2019) ‘How to rule the world a timely reminder of issues facing the nation’ [Review of How to rule the world by Nakkiah Lui], The Canberra Times.
Wakelin O (25 January 2019) ‘Review: The big time, Ensemble Theatre’ [Review of The big time by David Williamson], ArtsHub, accessed 18 December 2019.

Poems

Elements of the reference
Author A (Year of Original Publication/Year of Edition) ‘Title of poem: subtitle of poem’, Name of collection, Name of Publisher of Edition, Place of Publication.
In-text citation
  • Include a page number after a colon if you’re citing a specific page. Use the original and edition dates if citing an old work.
(Poe 1845/2012)
(Harrison 2008:133)
(Grono 1973)
(Coleridge The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, part 2, verse 29, lines 121-2).
Reference list
  • As in text, use the original capitalisation of the poem in the reference list entry.
Poe EA (1845/2012) The raven, Arcturus Publishing Limited, London.
Harrison M (2008) Wild bees, University of Western Australia Press, Crawley.
Taylor A (1982) ‘The cool change’, Selected poems, University of Queensland Press, St Lucia.
Grono W (1973) ‘A Postcard from Perth’, in Hewett D (ed.), Sandgropers: a Western Australian anthology, University of Western Australia Press, Nedlands.
Dong-Jip Shin (1974) ‘Ordinary autumn evening’, Best loved poems of Korea, (Ko Ch’ang-su, trans.), Hollym International, Republic of Korea.
White TW (1944) Sky saga: a story of empire airmen, 2nd edn, Hutchinson & Co., Melbourne.
Harwood G (1963) ‘Critic’s nightwatch’, Poems, Poem Hunter website, accessed 18 December 2019.

Open educational resource (OER)

Elements of the reference
Author Surname, Initial(s) Year, Book title, OER Publisher/Repository.
In-text citation
Skripak et al. (2020) OR (Skripak et al. 2020)
Reference list
Skripak SJ, Parsons R and Cortes A (2020) Fundamentals of business, Open Textbook Library.

Classics

  • Disciplines and sources define the term ‘classics’ in different ways. This guidance covers ancient Greek and Roman works (until the 5th century) and works from the medieval period (from the fall of the Roman empire until the middle of the 15th century).
In references and in-text citations, treat the titles of classics as you would other book titles.
  • Use sentence case – capitalise only the first letter of the title and the first letter of any proper noun.
  • Use italics for the titles of books, series and anthologies.
  • Use quotation marks for the titles of chapters, poems or sections.
In-text citations
  • Often there will not be much information for classics. For example, you might not know the date of publication.
  • Include the information that you know in in-text citations.
  • If you don’t know the name of the author, don’t use ‘Anon’‘unknown’ or ‘Anonymous’ in the in-text citation, simply place the date at the end of the sentence.
Example
Beowulf is the story of a hero who defeats a dragon.
Reference list
  • If you don’t know the author or the date of a work, use the name of the translator (trans) and the date of publication of the edition you’re working with. Place the date at the end of the reference.
Beowulf (Heaney S, trans), Faber & Faber Ltd, London, 2002.

Book in foreign language

  •  Provide English translation in parentheses immediately after the original title.
  • The names of foreign publishers should not be translated. Use the anglicised spelling of foreign places of publications, e.g. Rome, not Roma.
Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) Title of book in original language (English translation), Publisher, Place of Publication.
In-text citation
(Greau 2008) OR Greau (2008)
Reference list
Greau J (2008) La trahison des économistes (The betrayal of economists), Gallimard, Paris.

Broadcast media (film, video, music, podcasts, television and radio programs)

About citing electronic media

Electronic media can include film, television, radio and podcasts. When you write about electronic media you could also be referring to a script or a review.

Many of the general naming rules apply:

  • Use sentence case – retain initial capitals for the first word, proper nouns and proper adjectives.
  • Italicise the titles of films, television and radio programs, and podcasts.
  • Use italics for published works and roman type for unpublished works.
  • Use roman type and quotation marks for parts of works, such as episodes.
  • Use roman type and the spelling and capitalisation that the company uses for the names of channels, streaming services and networks.
  • Use full names of organisations the first time you mention them.

Film

Elements of the reference
Director D (director) or Producer P (producer) (Year) Title of film: subtitle of film [motion picture], Name of Studio or Publisher, Place of Production.
In-text citation
  • After the first mention, you can abbreviate the title as long as it makes sense. You can also omit the date in parentheses. This often happens with well-known and longer titles because it improves the flow of the text.
Ride like a girl (2019) tells the story of jockey Michelle Payne..
Picnic at Hanging Rock (1975) continues to be a popular film..
They released The Man from Snowy River II in 1988.
Reference list
Safran H (director) (1976) Storm boy [motion picture], South Australian Film Corporation, Adelaide.
Jury WF (producer) (1916) Battle of the Somme [motion picture], British Topical Committee for War Films, London.

Television programs

Elements of the reference
Director D (director) or Producer P (producer) (Year) ‘Title of episode: subtitle of episode’ [television program], Name of series (season number, episode number), Name of Station or Studio, Place of Production.
In-text citation
Gruen is a popular television program on ABC TV.
The Australian story episode 'Out of the blue' is about a shark attack in the Whitsundays.
Reference list
Pellizzeri R (director) (1994) ‘Luck of the draw’ [television program], Blue heelers (season 1, episode 44), Seven Network, Melbourne.
  • If the episode doesn’t have a name, write the name of the program first.
ABC Television (2019) Gardening Australia (season 30, episode 35) [television program], ABC Television, Sydney.

Online videos

  • For videos published online, hyperlink the title of the video and file format. Include the date you accessed it at the end of the reference.
  • If the video is from a database - behind a paywall - (ClickView or Kanopy) hyperlink the title and file format to the homepage.
Elements of the reference
Creator C or Owner of Video (Day Month Year) ‘Title of video’ [video], Name of Channel or Owning Organisation, Name of Website, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
Organisational author
The ABC (2018) reported on the next potential Nobel Prize winner..
Individual author
Remember to do practice exams (Abdaal 2022)..
Reference list
Abdaal A (24 February 2022) 'How I ranked 1st at Cambridge University - 20 study tips' [video]Ali Abdaal, YouTube, accessed 10 January 2022.
Australian Government Department of Health (28 February 2020) ‘Get the facts – immunisation facts in 90 seconds’ [video], Australian Government Department of Health, YouTube, accessed 6 March 2020.
ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) (10 May 2018) ‘The Australian writer who could be the next Nobel Prize winner’ [video]ABC News (Australia), YouTube, accessed 29 May 2019.
Veritasium (10 July 2021) 'The biggest myth in education' [video], Veritasium, YouTube, accessed 23 March 2022.
ClickView video
Short Cuts TV (2021) ‘Of mice and monkeys: ethical; issues in animal research’ [video], Short Cuts TV, ClickView, accessed 21 March 2022.

Radio programs

Elements of the reference
Presenter P (presenter) (Day Month Year) ‘Title of episode: subtitle of episode’ [radio program], Name of program, Name of Station or Studio, Place of Production.
In-text citation
The wire is a news and current affairs program on Brisbane community radio station 4EB.
'The bilby, the moon and the Birriliburu Rangers' from Off track went to air in January 2020.
Reference list
Jones A (presenter) (18 January 2020) ‘The bilby, the moon and the Birriliburu Rangers’ [radio program], Off track, ABC Radio National, Sydney.

Podcasts

Elements of the reference
Host H (host) and Producer P (producer) (Day Month Year) ‘Title of podcast: subtitle of podcast’ [podcast], Name of podcast, Name of Podcast Network, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
A local podcast in this popular genre is Australian true crime hosted by Meshel Laurie and Emily Webb.
'Evil crows, bird funerals, swooping magpies' is an episode from Triple J’s Science with Dr Karl podcast.
Reference list
  • Hyperlink the episode’s title if you played it from a webpage. Don’t link to the podcast’s file name. Always link to the webpage that hosts the podcast episode. Include the date it was accessed at the end of the reference.
Stephens J (host) (26 December 2019) ‘Best of 2019: the beauty queen killer’ [podcast], True crime conversations, Mamamia Podcasts, accessed 21 January 2020.
Hooper C (host) and Arnall K (producer) (3 November 2019) ‘Goodbye secret garage shame’[podcast], The pineapple project, ABC, accessed 4 February 2020.

Music

Musical compositions include:

  • songs
  • operas
  • ballets
  • dances
  • chamber music
  • soundtracks
  • electronic music.
Elements of the reference
Creator C (Year) ‘Title of song: subtitle of song’ [Medium], Title of compilation or album, Name of Publisher.
Creator C (Year) Title of long work or compilation [Medium], Name of Publisher.
In-text citation
'Dance monkey' by Tones and I is about..
Sadie is a 1968 album..
Reference list
Tones and I (2019) ‘Dance monkey’ [Song], The kids are coming, Sony Music Australia.
Farnham J (1968) Sadie [Album], EMI/Columbia
Bach JS (2010) The Brandenburg concertos: concertos BWV 1043 & 1060 [Album recorded by Academy of St Martin in the Fields], Decca.

Conference papers, presentations, theses

Conference papers, presentations

  • For conference papers published online, hyperlink the title. If you’re citing a PDF, avoid linking directly to the PDF. Instead link to the page that hosts the PDF.

Published conference paper and presentation

Elements of the reference
Author A (Day Month Year) ‘Title of paper: subtitle of paper’ [conference presentation], Name of Conference, Place of Conference, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
Blunden (2007) OR (Blunden 2007)
Reference list
Blunden J (9–12 May 2007) ‘Plain or just dull? Collateral damage from the Plain English movement’ [conference presentation], 3rd IPEd Conference, Tasmania, accessed 3 May 2019.

Unpublished conference paper

Elements of the reference
Author A (Day Month Year) ‘Title of paper: subtitle of paper’ [unpublished conference presentation], Name of Conference, Place of Conference.
Reference list
Blunden J (9–12 May 2007) ‘Plain or just dull? Collateral damage from the Plain English movement’ [unpublished conference presentation], 3rd IPEd Conference, Hobart.

Theses

  • If the thesis is online, hyperlink the title and include an accessed date. If you’re citing a PDF, avoid linking directly to the PDF. Instead link to the page that hosts the PDF.

Published thesis

Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) Title of thesis: subtitle of thesis [type of thesis], Name of University, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
(Rahman 2013) OR Rahman (2013)
Reference list
Rahman M (2013) Using authentic materials in the writing classes: tertiary level scenario [master’s thesis], BRAC University, accessed 5 May 2017.

Unpublished thesis

Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) Title of thesis: subtitle of thesis [unpublished type of thesis], Name of University, accessed Day Month Year.
Reference list
Rahman M (2013) Using authentic materials in the writing classes: tertiary level scenario [unpublished master’s thesis], BRAC University, accessed 5 May 2017.

Course materials

Lecture / tutorial notes / module content in Blackboard

  • This format is for citing lecture notes and other course materials (e.g. PowerPoint Slides). If you cite something from a lecture that was not included in a set of lecture notes, or from your own notes, treat it like personal communication.
Elements of the reference
Author A (Day Month Year) Title or your own descriptive title of class/topic [type of medium], Full name and code of unit, Southern Cross University.
In-text citation
(Nelson 2015) OR (Nelson 2015, slide 2)
Reference list
Nelson S (20 April 2015) Human resource management: topic 2 [PowerPoint slides], Human Resource Management MNG00724, Southern Cross University.
Faculty of Business, Law and Arts (2022) Module 1: what is history? [Module content], Making History HIST1001, Southern Cross University.

Unit content in PERCI

  • A URL is not required as these cannot be accessed without an SCU login and may not to be available once that teaching session is finished.
Elements of the reference
Author A (Day Month Year) Unit code Title of the unit: unit content section title, Southern Cross University.
In-text Citation
(ACC91210 Finance for managers: risk and return 2020)
Reference list
ACC91210 Finance for managers: risk and return (10 January 2020) Southern Cross University.

Your own unpublished creative work

  • The title of your assignment is not italicised. That means a reader of your reference list understands the assignment is unpublished. 
Elements of the reference 
Author A (Year) 'Title of work' [medium], Southern Cross University.
In-text citation
(Jackson 2016) OR (Jackson 2016:2)
Reference list
Jackson H (2016) 'Sweet fruit' [unpublished creative writing assignment], Southern Cross University.

Emails, personal communication, interviews

Emails and personal communication

  • For emails and personal communication, only include an in-text citation. Don’t include a citation in the reference list.
Example - In-text citation
Susannah Bishop (personal communication, 5 February 2020) wrote..

Interviews

  • If the interview is published online, hyperlink the title and include the date you accessed it.
  • If you’re citing a PDF, avoid linking directly to the PDF. Instead link to the page that hosts the PDF.
  • Always use the interviewer’s name in the in-text reference. If you’re quoting the interviewee, make it clear in the text.

 

Transcript of an interview

Elements of the reference
Interviewer I (Day Month Year) Interviewer Full Name interviews Interviewee Full Name: Title of interview [interview transcript], Name of Publisher, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
Milne responded about the resignation (Sales 2018).
Reference list
Sales L (28 September 2018) Leigh Sales interviews Justin Milne: Justin Milne resigns as ABC chairman [interview transcript], ABC, accessed 4 February 2020.

 

Audio or video file of an interview

Elements of the reference
Interviewer I (Day Month Year) Interviewer Full Name interviews Interviewee Full Name: Title of interview [interview audio or video file], Name of Publisher, accessed Day Month Year.
Reference list
Sales L (20 December 2019) Leigh Sale interviews Dudley Harrington: Dudley Harrington on the Queensland floods [interview video file], ABC, accessed 4 March 2020.

Government sources

Use acronyms or abbreviations

  • If the name of an authoring organisation, e.g. government agency, is long and cited often in the text, it may be necessary to abbreviate the name in the in-text citation.
  • The first time an acronym or abbreviated name is used, you must give the full name followed by the acronym in parenthesis.
For example:
 … (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS] 2021)
  Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS 2021) ..

You may use just the acronyms in subsequent citations.

For example:
(ABS 2021)
(ABS 2021:5)

Reports

  • For reports published online, hyperlink the title of the report and include an accessed date. If you’re citing a PDF, avoid linking directly to the PDF. Instead link to the page that hosts the PDF.
  • Sources with title pages will detail the author and publisher. Follow the authoring details on the title page of the document.

Report by an Australian Government agency

Elements of the reference
Author A or Agency Name (Year) Title of report: subtitle of report, Name of Agency, Name of Government, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
(Baslum 2000)
(Department of Health and Aged Care [DHAC] 1999)
Department of Conservation (2000)
Reference list
Baslum S (2000) Payments to Vietnam veterans: a summary, Department of Veterans’ Affairs, Australian Government.
DHAC (Department of Health and Aged Care) (1999) Hepatitis C: a review of Australia’s response, report prepared by D Lowe and R Cotton, DHAC, Australian Government.
Department of Conservation (2000) Hydrogen-powered cars: progress to date, Sustainable Energy Branch, Department of Conservation, Northern Territory Government.

 

Unpublished report by an Australian Government agency

  • For unpublished reports include the word ‘unpublished’ instead of the year in in-text citations.
Elements of the reference
Author A or Agency Name (unpublished) Title of report: subtitle of report, Name of Agency, Name of Government, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
In their report, White and Jackson (unpublished) ..
Reference list
White N and Jackson D (unpublished) Testing for EPO, Australian Sports Drug Agency, Australian Government, accessed 3 March 2020.

 

Report that is part of a series

  • Italicise the name of the series, not the title of the report
Elements of the reference
Author A or Agency Name (Year) ‘Title of report: subtitle of report’, Name of Series, catalogue number, Name of Agency, Name of Government, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW 2019) ..
Reference list
AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) (2019) ‘Australia’s welfare 2019 data insights’, Australia’s Welfare Series 14, catalogue number AUS 226, AIHW, Australian Government, accessed 5 February 2020.

 

Report to an Australian Government agency

Elements of the reference
Author A or Agency Name (Year) Title of report: subtitle of report, report to Agency Name, Organisation Name or Abbreviation.
In-text citation
White and Green (2020:7) ..
Reference list
White N and Green J (2020) Hydrogen-powered cars: progress to date, report to the Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, SLR Consulting.
MJA (Marsden Jacob Associates) (2020) Hydrogen-powered cars: progress to date, report to the Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, MJA.

 

Published internal report

Elements of the reference
Author A or Organisation Name or Abbreviation (Year) Title of report: subtitle of report, Organisation Name or Abbreviation.
In-text citation
TerraCycle (2018) reports ..
Reference list
TerraCycle (2018) Report on recycling in Canberra offices, TerraCycle.

 

Report known by a short title

  • Sometimes a report is better known by a short title or unofficial title. If you’re citing a source like this, use the short title in text.
  • In the reference list, use the short title followed by a spaced em dash and the full source information (author / organisation name, etc)
In-text citation
The Gonski report (2011) suggests that ...
Reference list
Gonski report  Gonski D, Boston K, Greiner K, Lawrence, C, Scales B and Tannock P (2011) Review of funding for schooling: final report, Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, Australian Government, accessed 11 February 2020.

Media releases

  • Hyperlink the title of media releases and include an accessed date if the media release is published online.

Media release with authors listed

Elements of the reference
Author A (Day Month Year) Title of media release: subtitle of media release [media release], Organisation Name, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
Black and Jacobsen (2020) OR (Black and Jacobsen 2020)
Reference list
Black F and Jacobsen N (4 February 2020) ACT has highest student participation and employment [media release], ACT Government, accessed 5 February 2020.

 

Media release with no authors listed

Elements of the reference
Organisation Name or Abbreviation (Day Month Year) Title of media release: subtitle of media release [media release], Organisation Name or Abbreviation, accessed Day Month Year.
In- text citation
ACT Government (2020) OR (ACT Government 2020)
Reference list
ACT Government (4 February 2020) ACT has highest student participation and employment [media release], ACT Government, accessed 5 February 2020.

Datasets

  • For online data sets, hyperlink the title and include the accessed date. If you’re citing a PDF or spreadsheet, avoid linking directly to the document. Instead link to the webpage that hosts the document.
Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) Title of data set [data set], Name of Website website, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
National Native Title Tribunal (2014) ..
Reference list
National Native Title Tribunal (2014) Native Title determination outcomes [data set], data.gov.au, accessed 4 January 2020.

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)

  • The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) has a guide to referencing ABS material.
  • Follow the ABS advice for information to include, but adjust capitalisation and punctuation to be in line with the rest of the reference list for your content (Harvard style).
  • For online data sets, hyperlink the title and include the accessed date. If you’re citing a PDF or spreadsheet, avoid linking directly to the document. Instead link to the webpage that hosts the document.
Elements of the reference
Print
Australian Bureau of Statistics (Year) Title, ABS, Canberra.
Online
Australian Bureau of Statistics (Year) Title, ABS, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS 1995) ..
Reference list
ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) (1995) National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander survey 1994: detailed findings, ABS, Canberra.
ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) (2016) 2016 Census – Cultural diversity [TableBuilder], ABS website, accessed 16 November 2020.

Parliamentary sources

Parliamentary papers, such as budget papers, white papers and annual reports, are published:

  • as individual documents
  • as bound volumes of all documents tabled in a parliamentary sitting.

For individual documents, cite them as you would any document of that type. For example, if you access an annual report on a departmental website, cite it as a government report.

 

Bound parliamentary papers

For documents you access as part of a bound volume from a parliamentary sitting:

  • use the name of the parliament as the author
  • include the paper number.
Elements of the reference
Name of Parliament (Year) Title of document: subtitle of document, Parl Paper X, Name of Government.
In-text citation
Parliament of Australia (2000) ..
Reference list
Parliament of Australia (2000) Department of Finance and Administration annual report 1999–2000, Parl Paper 32, Australian Government.

 

Parliamentary debates and proceedings

  • To cite a record of what was said in parliament verbatim, as recorded in Hansard, use the volume and page number. Volume numbers are before the colon, page numbers are after.
Elements of the reference
Name of Parliamentary Committee or House (Year) Debates, volume:page–page.
In-text citation
Australian Senate (2000) OR (Australian Senate 2000)
Reference list
Australian Senate (2000) Debates, S25:65.
Australian House of Representatives (2000) Debates, HR103:2–9.

 

Official Australian parliament records

  • To cite the official records of proceedings in each house of parliament, include the volume or issue number and the page number. Issue numbers are in parentheses. Volume numbers are outside parentheses.
  • Official Australian Parliament records may be from the Journals of the Senate or the Votes and Proceedings of the House of Representatives.
Elements of the reference
Name of Parliamentary House (Year) Journals or Votes and Proceedings, (issue) or volume:page–page.
In-text citation
Australian Senate (2000-01)
Reference list
Australian Senate (2000–01) Journals, (123):718.
Australian House of Representatives (2000–01) Votes and Proceedings, 1:631.

Records from National Archives of Australia

Reference list
National Archives of Australia: Prime Minister’s Department; A461, Correspondence files, multiple number series (third system), 1934–50; AX314/1/1, Aeronautical Research in the British Empire, 1945–49.

Indigenous Knowledge

Acknowledging Traditional Knowledge

The Australian Government Style Manual contains updated information on inclusive language. It is important to use language that is culturally appropriate and respectful of the diversity of Australia’s peoples.

Please follow the link below for information on how to write with, for or about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in a culturally appropriate and respectful way.

Tips for in-text citation and reference list entries

  • You should reference the information according to the style for that particular source (book, article, video etc). Where appropriate you can choose to acknowledge the author as an Elder, where applicable, and Nation Group (if known) further in your text.
  • The words, Elder, Aunty, and Uncle should not be abbreviated.
Example 1 (Book)
In-text citation
Bundjalung Elder, Uncle Charles Moran, highlights the importance of stillness and listening to the lessons from Country (Moran and Moran 2004:56).
Reference list
Moran CH and Moran G (2004) Talk softly, listen well: profile of a Bundjalung elder, Charles Moran, Southern Cross University Press.
Example 2 (Published interview)
  • When the person being interviewed doesn't appear in the author element in the Reference, integrate their Nation Group, title if applicable, and full name into the narrative of the sentence.
In-text citation
Gumbaynggirr Elder, Aunty Bea Ballangarry, explains how the removal of judgement found in yarning circles provides opportunities for healing (NSW Mental Health Commission 2016).
Reference list
NSW Mental Health Commission (20 January 2016) 'Guunumba Sit Down Circles with Aunty Bea Ballangarry - Coffs Harbour, NSW ' [video], NSW Mental Health Commission, YouTube, accessed 30 November 2020.
Example 3 (Elder's title in byline)
  • If the author's name includes Elder, Aunty, or Uncle in the byline of the publication, preserve their full name in the reference list.
In-text citation
Gumbaynggirr Elder, Aunty Shaa Smith, explains the importance of getting to know Country (Yandaarra with Gumbaynggirr Country et al., 2022)
Reference list
Yandarra with Gumbaynggirr Country, Aunty Shaa Smith, Uncle Bud Marshall, Smith N, Wright S, Daley L and Hodge P (2022) 'Ethics and consent in more-than-human research: some considerations from/with/as Gumbaynggirr Country, Australia', Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 47(3): 709–724, doi:10.1111/tran.12520

Stop and think

  • Is the information accurate and appropriate?
  • Is the information something you are allowed to share?
  • Is the Community, Nation, or Language group acknowledged?
    • If so, you can also acknowledge them in your text.
    • If not, you can acknowledge in your text that this is Indigenous Knowledge with unknown origin.

Further reading

Journal, magazine & newspaper articles

About citing journal articles

Basic elements needed to reference a journal article:
  • Author
  • Year of publication
  • 'Title of the article'
  • Journal Title
  • Volume
  • Issue number
  • Page ranges of the article
  • DOI (if available)

About DOIs

  • A DOI is a series of numbers and punctuation that identifies a document. Unlike a URL, a DOI always stays the same. DOIs are also internationally standardised.
  • Works that have DOIs include most journal articles, some e-books and some PDFs.
  • If the document has a DOI, include it in the citation in the reference list. Put it at the end of the citation and include the shortened form ‘doi’ in lower case before it.
  • How to find a DOI - You can search for a DOI by going to https://search.crossref.org/ and pasting in the article title. 
Example
Kelleher T (2009) ‘Conversational voice’, Journal of Communication, 59(1):172–188, doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.01410.x.

One author, two authors, three or more authors

One author

Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) ‘Title of article: subtitle of article’, Name of Journal, volume(issue):page–page, doi:number.
In-text citation
Kelleher (2009) OR (Kelleher 2009:172)
Reference list
Kelleher T (2009) ‘Conversational voice’, Journal of Communication, 59(1):172–188, doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.01410.x.

Two authors

Elements of the reference
Author A and Author B (Year) ‘Title of article: subtitle of article’, Name of Journal, volume(issue):page–page, doi:number.
In-text citation
Kelleher and Edmunds (2009)
Reference list
Kelleher T and Edmunds M (2009) ‘Conversational voice’, Journal of Communication, 59(1):172–188, doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.01410.x.

Three or more authors

Elements of the reference
Author A, Author B and Author C (Year) ‘Title of article: subtitle of article’, Name of Journal, volume(issue):page–page, doi:number.
In-text citation
Kelleher et al. (2009)
Reference list
Kelleher T, Edmunds M and Hogel F (2009) ‘Conversational voice’, Journal of Communication, 59(1):172–188, doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.01410.x.

Electronic journal article without a doi, from an online database

  • Reference the journal as a print version.
Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) ‘Title of article: subtitle of article’, Name of Journal, volume(issue):page–page.
In-text citation
Jones (2022) ...
Reference list
Jones D (2022) 'Looking to the future', Journal of Information, 6(2):31-36.

Journal article with an article number

  • Sometimes a journal article will use an article number instead of volume/ issue or page numbers.

Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) ‘Title of article: subtitle of article’, Name of Journal, article number, doi.
In-text citation
Munro and Lowe (2014) identified..
Reference list
Munro B and Lowe M (2014) ‘Learning within peer groups’, Journal of Education, article no. 25798, doi:10.3276/edu.v19.25798.

Advance online publication

  • Advance online publication may or may not include a year and usually will not yet have volume, issue, or page(s).

  • If there is a year, include it in brackets before the title.

  • Include an accessed date after the journal name.

Elements of the reference
Author A (advance online publication) ‘Title of article: subtitle of article’, Name of Journal, accessed Day Month Year, doi.
In-text citation
Kjellberg and Jansson (advance online publication) found that ....
Reference list 
Kjellberg I and Jansson B (advance online publication) 'The capability approach in social work research: a scoping review of research addressing practical social work', International Social Work, accessed 4 February 2022, doi:10.1177/0020872819896849

Journal article in press/ not yet published

Elements of the reference
Author A (in press) ‘Title of article: subtitle of article’, Name of Journal.
In-text citation
  • For journal articles not yet published, use ‘in press’ instead of the year in the in-text citation.
Jackson (in press) reported similar results.
Reference list
Jackson L (in press) ‘Conversational voice’, Journal of Communication.

Journal article in foreign language

Journal articles in foreign languages

  • Provide a translation in parentheses immediately after the title of the article. The title of a foreign –language journal should be cited in the original language without translation - to enable interested readers to locate it.
Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) 'Title of article in original language' (English translation), Title of journal in original language, volume(issue):page-page, doi number.
In-text citation
(Hohler 2007) OR Hohler (2007:67)
Reference list
Hohler S (2014) ’Von biodiversität zu biodiversifizierung: eine neue okonomie der natur?’ (Biodiversity to Biodiversification: a new economy of nature?), Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte, 37(1):60–77, doi:10.1002/bewi.201401664.

Newspaper or Magazine article

  • For works like newspaper and magazine articles include the full date – not just the year – in the reference list. It makes it easier for users to find this detail. 
  • For online newspaper and magazine articles, hyperlink the title. Include the date you accessed the article at the end of the reference.
  • If the article is behind a paywall, link the article title to the homepage of the magazine or newspaper.

Article with author listed

Elements of the reference
Author A (Day Month Year) ‘Title of article: subtitle of article’, Name of Newspaper or Magazine, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
Richardson (2018) ..
Reference list
Richardson A (24 May 2018) ‘Australia imports almost all of its oil, and there are pitfalls all over the globe’, The Conversation, accessed 29 January 2020.
Doman M, Palmer A and Scott N (31 January 2020) ‘Cracking the code to Steve Smith's batting success’, ABC, accessed 5 February 2020.

 

Article with no author listed

  • If a article doesn’t list an author, use the name of the newspaper or magazine.
Elements of the reference
Name of Newspaper or Magazine (Day Month Year) ‘Title of article: subtitle of article’, Name of Newspaper or Magazine, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
ABC (2020) ..
Reference list
ABC (31 January 2020) ‘Cracking the code to Steve Smith's batting success’, ABC, accessed 5 February 2020.

 

Article print version

Elements of the reference
Author A (Day Month Year) ‘Title of article: subtitle of article’, Name of Newspaper or Magazine.
In-text citation
McCoy (2020) ..
Reference list
McCoy M (31 January 2020) 'Who's running the show?', The Sydney Morning Herald.

Legal material

Citing legal sources

Legal sources are usually included in a list of references only if they are important to an understanding of the work.

  • Legislation - Acts, Regulations, rules and by-laws, should be cited exactly - avoid altering spelling or capitalisation to suit the reference style.
  • Most Acts have a short formal title that can be used for citation purpose.
  • Case - The name of the case is italicised and the year is placed in brackets.
Jurisdiction

Make it obvious in the text, e.g. Victoria's Equal Opportunity Act 1995 prohibits' or place the abbreviated information in brackets after the date, (use Cth for Commonwealth Acts),e.g. the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth) ...

Units of division (Pinpoint reference)
The basic units of division for Acts are sections. The abbreviations s., ss. can be used but should never appear at the beginning a sentence. The AGPS manual recommends the following style for citing divisions of Acts:
   Section 4 of the Commonwealth's Copyright Act 1968 ...
   In ss. 4-7 of the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth) ...
   The Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), s. 4, ...

Cite legal material consistently and accurately

It’s important to cite legal sources in a consistent and accurate way across government.

The Style Manual gives common guidance for different types of legal material, including:

In-text citations

Add detail to citations with notes
  • Writing about the law and legal matters requires careful citation.
  • You can use in-text citations and footnotes or endnotes (notes) to provide accurate and complete details.
In-text citations
  • For general content, in-text citations often give people all the information they need.
The Major Bank Levy Act 2017 imposes a levy on authorised deposit‑taking institutions.
In South Australia v Commonwealth (First Uniform Tax Case), Chief Justice Latham of the Federal Court ...
Notes
  • Always list the legislation or case name first in a basic note.
  • Explanatory notes might vary. They can be a useful way to add extra information that would otherwise clutter the content.
  • Each note has the corresponding superscript reference marker before it. Users find the note by matching the number.
  • In digital content, the reference markers can be hyperlinked to help users access the note. Use hyperlinked endnotes in digital content. 
Example
The levy threshold is indexed quarterly.1 [A superscript reference marker for the first note]
The legislative basis for parliamentary remuneration and entitlements is complex.2 [A superscript reference marker for the second note]
1 Major Bank Levy Act 2017, subsection 4(3). [A basic note corresponding to the first reference marker]
2 Section 48 of the Australian Constitution provides for the payment of members of parliament. Commonwealth Acts include Remuneration and Allowances Act 1990Remuneration Tribunal Act 1973Ministers of State Act 1952... other Acts and associated delegated legislation. [An explanatory note corresponding to the second reference marker]

Pinpoint citations use 'at' for page/ paragraph numbers

  • Pinpoint page numbers for citations using 'at [page number'].
  • You can follow the page number with the number of the relevant paragraph as it appears in the judgment. Write the paragraph number in square brackets.
  • Use a comma to list separate pinpoint citations.
Example
1 Ruddock v Vadarlis (2001) 110 FCR 491 at 1191. [The pinpoint citation is on page 1191.]
2 Rojoda Pty Ltd v Commissioner of State Revenue (2018) 368 ALR 734 at 737 [10] .. [The pinpoint citations are at page 737 (paragraph 10)].

Cases

Legal cases are only included in a list of reference if they are important to an understanding of the work. In that case, it is preferable to list cases separately in alphabetical order under the subheading of "Cases". 

Elements of the reference
Name of the case (Year) Reference details (including vol number, Abbreviated Reference Series, Starting page number)
In-text citation
  • The name of the case is italicised and the year is placed in brackets.
  • Often cases are known by an abbreviated title. On first mention of the case name, follow with an abbreviated title, subsequent references can use the abbreviation.
The State of New South Wales v The Commonwealth (1915) ..
.. the State of New South Wales v The Commonwealth (Wheat Case). The Wheat Case ..
Reference list
  • The case name is in roman type, not italicised.
The State of New South Wales v. The Commonwealth (1915) 20 CLR 54

Legislation

Acts & Regulations

Legislation is only included in a list of reference if it is important to an understanding of the work. In that case, it is preferable to list separately under the subheading of "Legislation".

  • The titles of pieces of legislation (Acts, Regulations, rules and by-laws should be cited exactly - do not alter spelling or capitalisation.
  • Use roman type for the titles of Acts in reference lists and other long lists.
Elements of the reference
Title of the Act Year (abbreviation of the jurisdiction)
In-text citation
  • The first time you name the Act in text, use the short title in italics and the jurisdiction in parentheses roman type.
The Currency Act 1965 (SA) established ..
  • If there are subsequent mentions of the Act, use the short title in roman type without the year.
... as convicted of federal offences under the Crimes Act 1914 (Cth). The Crimes Act specifies …
Reference list
Residential Tenancies Act 1997 (Vic)

Titles of Acts from other countries are in roman type

  • In-text, write all legislation from foreign countries in roman type, followed by the country abbreviation.
  • If you’re not sure of an abbreviation, write the sentence to make the jurisdiction clear.
In-text citation
Digital Economy Act 2017 (UK)
Arms Legislation Act 2019 (NZ)
Fiji's Foreign Investment Act 1999 ..

Bills

  • A bill is a draft Act introduced into parliament. Write the titles of bills in roman type, not italics.

Elements of the reference
In-text citation
Migration Amendment (Regulation of Migration Agents) Bill 2017 (Cth)
Reference list
Migration Amendment (Regulation of Migration Agents) Bill 2017 (Cth)

Shortened form of jurisdictions

Use these shortened forms:
  • Cth (the Commonwealth)
  • ACT (Australian Capital Territory)
  • NT (Northern Territory)
  • NSW (New South Wales)
  • Qld (Queensland)
  • SA (South Australia)
  • Tas (Tasmania)
  • Vic (Victoria)
  • WA (Western Australia).

Online document, PDF, annual, company, industry reports

Online document

  • When citing a document hosted on a webpage, but not the webpage itself, don’t include the word website in the citation.
  • Hyperlink and italicise the document title.
Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) Title of document, Organisation Name or Name of Website, accessed Day Month Year.
Reference list
Western Australian Government (n.d.) Island guide, Rottnest Island, accessed 31 December 2019.

Online PDF or report

  • If you’re citing a PDF, avoid linking directly to the PDF. Instead link to the landing page where the PDF is hosted.
  • Landing pages tend to be a more stable place to link to. PDFs are often renamed or moved around a site. Linking to a PDF also requires the user to download content.
Elements of the reference
Author A or Organisational author (Year) 'Title of PDF: subtitle' Name of Landing page, Website name, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
Thomson Reuters Australia (2017) OR (Thomson Reuters Australia 2017)
Reference list
  • The link targets a landing page, not a PDF.
Thomson Reuters Australia (2017) ‘Legislation and commentary table of abbreviations’ Westlaw AU Guides, Thomson Reuters Australia, accessed 6 April 2020.
Elements of the reference
  • If the PDF doesn’t have a landing page, link to the PDF and include ‘PDF’ in square brackets after the title, followed with the file size in kilobytes (KB) or megabytes (MB). Include both of these additional details in the linked text.
  • Cite the PDF with the details you can find in the document. Sometimes details like publication dates will be missing.
Author A or Organisational author (Year) Title: subtitle [PDF XKB], Website name, accessed Day Month Year.
Reference list
Thomson Reuters Australia (n.d.) Table of abbreviations [PDF 94.35KB], Thomson Reuters Australia, accessed 20 January 2020.

Annual report

  • For reports published online, hyperlink the title of the report and include an accessed date. If you’re citing a PDF, avoid linking directly to the PDF. Instead link to the page that hosts the PDF.
  • Sources with title pages will detail the author and publisher. Follow the authoring details on the title page of the document.
Elements of the reference
Print
Author A (Year) Title: subtitle, Publisher, Place of Publication
Online
Author A (Year) Title: subtitle, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
(Tabcorp 2012:45-46) OR Tabcorp (2012)
Reference list
Print
Tabcorp (2012) Annual report 2012, Tabcorp Holdings Limited, Melbourne.
Online
Woolworths Group (2012) Annual report 2021, accessed 10 January 2022.

Company and industry report

  • Use this format to cite a company report, a company profile or an industry report from databases such as DataAnalysis, Factiva, Business Source Complete, etc.
Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) Title: subtitle, accessed Day Month Year, Database name.
In-text reference
Datamonitor (2012)
(Stephen 2012)
Reference list
Datamonitor (2010) Rio Tinto SWOT analysis, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, accessed 20 January 2012.
IBISWorld report identifies the analyst who prepared the report as the author, cite a IBISWorld report as per example below
Stephen T (2012) IBISWorld industry report L7714. Retail property operators in Australia, IBISWorld, accessed 20 January 2013.

Other sources

Brochures and pamphlets

  • This format is for citing booklets, brochures, pamphlets and fact sheets, try to include as many reference details as you can locate from the publication.
  • For online brochures, pamphlets or factsheets, hyperlink the title and include an accessed date. If you’re citing a PDF, avoid linking directly to the PDF. Instead link to the page that hosts the PDF.
Elements of the reference
Print
Author A (Year) Title, Publisher, Place of Publication.
Online
Author A (Year) Title, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
Southern Cross University (2008)
Reference list
Print
Southern Cross University (2008) Copyright and you: a guide for staff, Southern Cross University, Lismore.
Online
Department of Health (2021) Summary of items - COVID-19 temporary MBS telehealth services for private admitted patients, accessed 7 March 2022.

Financial data

  • This format would be used to cite financial data, share price charts etc located in databases, or online financial data providers.
Elements of the reference
Database
Title (Year) Name of database, accessed Day Month Year.
Online financial data provider
  • Hyperlink title
Title (Year) Name of online data provider, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
Commonwealth Bank of Australia (2015) ..
(ANZ Banking Group Ltd 2022)
Reference list
Commonwealth Bank of Australia 2011-2015 annual income statement (2015) Factiva, accessed 20 January 2016.
ANZ Banking Group Ltd [ANZ.AX] historical data (2022) Yahoo! 7 Finance, accessed 7 March 2022.

Map

  • Hyperlink title for online maps.
Elements of the reference
Online
Author A (Year) Image details/description - location, co-ordinates, elevation. Format/Data set (if available), accessed Day Month Year.
Print
Author A (Year) Map title, Publisher, Place of Publication.
In-text citation
(Google Earth 2022)
(Department of Lands, NSW 2004)
Reference list
Google Earth (2022) Southern Cross University Gold Coast Campus, 28°10'07"S, 153°31'04"E, elevation 4M. 2D map, accessed 7 March 2022.
Department of Lands, NSW (2004) Topographic & orthophoto map 1:25,000. 9537-3N, New South Wales, 3rd edn, Dept. of Lands, Bathurst.

Standards

Elements of the reference
Print
Institution name, Year, Standard title, Publisher, Place of Publication.
Online
Institution name, Year, Standard title, viewed date Month Year, SAI Global.
In-text citation
(Standards Australia International Limited 2004)
(Standards Australia International Limited 2004:5)
Reference list
Print
Standards Australia International Limited (2004) Risk management: AS/NZS 4360:2004, Standards Australia International, Sydney.
Online - Standard from SAI Global database
Standards Australia (1999) Technical product documentation -organization and naming of layers for CAD - concepts, format and codes used in construction documentation, AS 13567.2-1999 (R2013), accessed 11 November 2014, SAI Global.

Social media and forum posts

Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Online forum post

  • For social media posts, include the first 10 words of the content followed by an ellipsis if there’s no title. Hyperlink the content or title to the original post and include the date you accessed the post.
  • Include the full date in the reference list.
Elements of the reference
Name of Page or Poster (Day Month Year) ‘Title or first 10 words of content of post ...’ [type of post], Page of Post, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
  • To cite social media and forum posts in text, use the poster’s name and the year as you would for other references. However, make sure the user knows it’s a social media post.
In a recent Facebook post, Services Australia (2020) ...
Reference list
Services Australia (31 January 2020) ‘Our mobile servicing arrangements will continue in NSW, VIC ...’ [Facebook status], Services Australia, accessed 1 February 2020.
Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment (3 February 2020) ‘Celebrate World Wetlands Day’ [Tweet], Australian Government Agriculture and Water, accessed 4 February 2020.
CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) (21 January 2020) ‘A brain transplant for one of Australia's top telescopes’ [online forum post], Reddit, accessed 4 February 2020.

Blog or Blog post

Blog

  • Hyperlink and italicise the title of the blog.
Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) Title of blog [format], accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
(Strong 2016) OR Strong (2016) ..
Reference list
Strong F (2016) Sword and the script [blog], accessed 23 July 2016.

Blog Post

  • For blog posts, hyperlink the title.

  • Italicise the name of the blog.

  • Include the date you accessed the post at the end of the reference.

  • If a post doesn’t list an author, use the name of the blog.

Elements of the reference
Author A (Day Month Year) ‘Title of post: subtitle’, Name of Blog, accessed Day Month Year.
Name of Blog (Day Month Year) ‘Title of post: subtitle’, Name of Blog, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
Peascod (2019) ..
(Mashable Me 2022) ..
Reference list
Peascod S (19 December 2019) ‘The future of work is learning’, Digital Transformation Agency blog, accessed 4 January 2020.
Mashable Me (10 March 2022) 'New mac mini will include Apple's M2 and M2 pro processors', Mashable Me blog, accessed 11 March 2022.

Comment on a blog post

Elements of the reference
Author A (Day Month Year) ‘Re: Title of post: subtitle’ [blog comment], Name of Blog, accessed Day Month Year.
Reference list
Mullins P (1 January 2020) ‘Re: Capturing attention in feed: the science behind effective video creative’ [blog comment], Facebook for Business, accessed 4 February 2020.

Tables, images, works of art

Images (photographs, charts, graphs, maps, diagrams, drawings, icons)

This box refers to images copied or reproduced from other sources.

Note: Include captions for all images that are not decorative.

Images (e.g. photographs, charts, graphs, maps, diagrams, drawings, and icons) are numbered as figures (e.g. Figure 1). Include a title or caption, providing a brief description, beside the number and above the image.  Include the number when referring to the image in the text, as below. Include the source, and permission or copyright information, if necessary, below the image.

Elements of the reference 
Author A or Organisation name abbreviated (Name of Organisation in full) (Year) Title of document/webpage, Publisher name, abbreviated if applicable), accessed Day Month Year.
Number and title/caption (above the image)
Figure 2: MDBA snapshot.
Source (below the image)

Rule: Source: Adapted from Source (Year).

Source: Adapted from MDBA (2019).
In-text citation
Figure 2 indicates the status of the regions in 2018-19 (MDBA 2019:3).
Reference list
MDBA (Murray-Darling Basin Authority) (2019) Annual report 2018–19, MDBA, accessed 3 February 2020.

Tables

This box refers to tables copied or reproduced from other sources.

Tables are numbered as tables (e.g. Table 1). Include a title or caption, providing a brief description, beside the number and above the table.  Include the number when referring to the table in the text, as below. Include the source, and permission or copyright information, if necessary, below the table.

Elements of the reference 
Author A or Organisation name abbreviated (Name of Organisation in full) (Year) Title of document/webpage, Publisher name, abbreviated if applicable), accessed Day Month Year.
Number and title/caption (above the table)
Table 1: Student enrolments by school affiliation, Australia, 2017 - 2021
Source (below the table)

Rule; Source: Adapted from Source (Year).

Source: Adapted from ABS (2022).
In-text citation
As per the data in Table 1 (ABS 2022), student enrolments are ...
Reference list
ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) (2022) Schools, ABS, accessed 14 March 2022..

Works of art (e.g. photographs, and illustrations)

Attribute works of art (such as photographs) using an extended caption that includes:

  • the full details of the work of art
  • copyright and permission information if necessary.
Elements of the reference
Creator Full Name (Year) Title or description of work [medium], Webpage, Name of Website website, Exhibition or Gallery, Location of Gallery, Copyright Creator, courtesy: Creator or Gallery, accessed Date Month Year.

If you’re writing about a work of art but not using it in your work, cite it in the text using the creator and date.

In-text citation
In the photograph (Western Australian Government n.d.) ...
Reference list
Western Australian Government (n.d.) Close up of a quokka [photograph], Unique wildlife encounters, Rottnest Island website, accessed 6 February 2020.

Note: Cite the artworks in a separate list after the reference list with its own title, such as ‘Works of art’.

Websites

About citing websites

Tips

  • Use the same capitalisation as the organisation uses for the name of a website.
  • You don’t need to include the URL at the end of the reference in digital content.
  • Hyperlink the title of the webpage.
  • If the source is behind a paywall, hyperlink to the homepage of the website.
  • Include the date you accessed the work. This is important because online sources can change. The information you’re linking to could be different to what users will find in the future.
Basic elements you need to reference a web page / document
  • Author (person or organization)
  • Year (or most recent date page created or revised) 
  • Title of the website / webpage / blog / document / etc
  • Name of website
  • Date accessed (Day Month Year)

Entire website

  • Hyperlink the name of the website
  • Always include the date you accessed the site at the end of the reference.
  • Include the word ‘website’ after the name of the website in square brackets.
  • You can include the website URL after the website name (optional). If you do this omit the word website in square brackets.
Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) Name of website, URL [optional], accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
(eSafety Commissioner n.d.)
Australian Public service Commission (APSC 2021)
Reference list
eSafety Commissioner (n.d.) eSafety [website], accessed 3 December 2020. 
URL included
APSC (Australian Public Service Commission) (2021) Australian Government Style Manual, stylemanual.gov.au, accessed 3 October 2021.

Webpages and webpage content

  • Hyperlink the title of the webpage. Don’t link to PDFs or other downloadable documents. Instead link to the page that hosts the document.
  • Include the word ‘website’ after the name of the website, unless the name of the website is a URL, for example WA.gov.au.

Webpage with authors listed

  • Italicise title of webpage
Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) Title of webpage, Name of Website website, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
(Clement 2020)
Reference list
Clement J (2020) Device usage of Facebook users worldwide as of July 2020, Statista website, accessed 16 September 2020.

Webpage written by an organisation

  • Italicise title of webpage
Elements of the reference
Organisation Name or Abbreviation (Year) Title of webpage, Name of Website website, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
(Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet n.d.)
Reference list
Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (n.d.) Australian National Anthem, PM&C website, accessed 20 January 2020.

Webpage as part of a larger publication or series

  • Italicise the name of publication or series
Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) ‘Title of webpage’, Name of larger publication or series, Name of Website website, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
Australian Public Service Commission (APSC 2021)
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C 2019)
Reference list
APSC (Australian Public Service Commission) (2021) ‘Author–date’, Australian Government Style Manual, stylemanual.gov.au, accessed 3 October 2021.
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) (2019) ‘Audio content and video content’, Making audio and video content accessible, W3C website, accessed 25 August 2020.

Image found on the web

  • Hyperlink the title of the image.
Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) Title of image (or a description) [description of image type] ( i.e. photograph, cartoon, digital image of painting, etc), Name of Website website, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
(ArtTower n.d.)
Reference list
ArtTower (n.d.) Humpback whale [photograph], Pixabay website, accessed 8 March 2022.

Blog or Blog post

Blog

  • Hyperlink and italicise the title of the blog.
Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) Title of blog [format], accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
(Strong 2016) OR Strong (2016) ..
Reference list
Strong F (2016) Sword and the script [blog], accessed 23 July 2016.

Blog Post

  • For blog posts, hyperlink the title.

  • Italicise the name of the blog.

  • Include the date you accessed the post at the end of the reference.

  • If a post doesn’t list an author, use the name of the blog.

Elements of the reference
Author A (Day Month Year) ‘Title of post: subtitle’, Name of Blog, accessed Day Month Year.
Name of Blog (Day Month Year) ‘Title of post: subtitle’, Name of Blog, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation
Peascod (2019) ..
(Mashable Me 2022) ..
Reference list
Peascod S (19 December 2019) ‘The future of work is learning’, Digital Transformation Agency blog, accessed 4 January 2020.
Mashable Me (10 March 2022) 'New mac mini will include Apple's M2 and M2 pro processors', Mashable Me blog, accessed 11 March 2022.

Comment on a blog post

Elements of the reference
Author A (Day Month Year) ‘Re: Title of post: subtitle’ [blog comment], Name of Blog, accessed Day Month Year.
Reference list
Mullins P (1 January 2020) ‘Re: Capturing attention in feed: the science behind effective video creative’ [blog comment], Facebook for Business, accessed 4 February 2020.

Wiki

  • Hyperlink the title of the post.

  • Italicise the title of the Wiki

Elements of the reference
Author A (Year) 'Title of post', Title of Wiki, accessed Day Month Year.
'Title of post' (Year) Title of Wiki, accessed Day Month Year.
In-text citation 
(Roussel 2008)
(Cultural issues 2007)
(Cultural issues 2007, para. 2)
Reference list
Roussel S (2008) 'Sustainability indicators'Coastal Wiki, accessed 25 May 2013. 
'Cultural issues affecting international trade' (2007) Wikiversity, accessed 27 October 2009.