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APA Printable


Please note that this printable version is only as recent as when it was printed and is almost 100 pages long.

Video tutorials found on the web-based guide are not on this printed version.


About APA 7th

The “APA style” is an author-date style for citing and referencing information in assignments and publications.

We would like to acknowledge and give thanks to the University of Queensland, for permission to use and adapt their APA 7th referencing style guide, upon which this guide is based.

Work consulted for this guide:

American Psychological Association. (2019). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).

APA's resources

Author information

One author

In-text citation:

Format
(Author last name, Year)
Example
.....finding information (Simpson, 1999) OR Simpson (1999) claimed that …

Reference list:

Format
Author(s) – last name, initial(s) ...
Example
Simpson, M. I. (1999). Find it fast: How to uncover expert information. Harper Perrenial.

 

Two authors

In-text citation:

Format
(Author last name & Author last name, Year)
Example
(Munro & Langan, 2015) OR Munro and Langan (2015)

Reference List:

Format
Author last name, initial(s), & Author last name, initial(s) .
Example
Munro, B., & Langan, S. (1992). The new age: University libraries. Hocking.

Three to twenty authors

In-text citation:

Format
(First author last name et al., Year) OR First author last name et al. (Year)
Example
(Hartnett et al., 2016) OR Hartnett et al. (2016)

Reference List:

Format
  • List all author names - last name, initials.

  • Use & between last two author names.

Example
Hartnett, M. H., Bellman, A. S. W., & Wells, N. L. (2009). Essential study tools. Jones and Bartlett

21 or more authors

In-text citation:

Format
(First author last name et al., Year) OR First author last name et al. (Year)
Example
(Nath et al., 2019) OR Nath et al. (2019)

Reference List:

Format
Cite the last names & initials of the first 19 authors then follow with a comma and three spaced ellipsis points (. . .), then the last author’s name. 
Example
Nath, A. P., Ritchie, S. C., Grinberg, N. F., Tang, H. H., Huang, Q. Q., Teo, S. M., Ahola-Olli, A. V., Wurtz, P., Havulinna, A. S., Santalahti, K., Pitkanen, N., Lehtimaki, T., Kahonen, M., Lyytikainen, L. P., Raitoharju, E., Seppala, I., Sarin, A. P., Ripatti, S., Palotie, A., . . . Inouye, M. (2019). Multivariate genome-wide association analysis of a cytokine network reveals variants with widespread immune, haematological, and cardiometabolic pleiotropy. American Journal of Human Genetics, 105(6), 1076-1090. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.10.00

Anonymous designated as author

In-text citation:

Format
(Anonymous listed as author name, Year) OR Anonymous listed as author name (Year)
Example
(Anonymous, 1996) OR Anonymous (1996)

Group authors with known abbreviation

  • Groups as authors include government departments, professional associations, company names, organisations
  • Only the full group name (not the abbreviation) should be included in the reference list

In-text citation:

Format
First Use: 
(Group Name [abbreviation], Year) OR Group Name (abbreviation, Year)
Subsequent Uses:
(Abbreviation, Year) OR Abbreviation (Year)
Example
First use:
(Animal Welfare League [AWL], 2012) OR Animal Welfare League (AWL, 2012)
Subsequent Uses:
(AWL, 2012) OR AWL (2012)

 

Authors with same last name

  • Include each first author’s initial(s) in all citations. Do this for the FIRST author only when there are multiple authors in a single reference. 
  • Initial(s) are included even if year of publication differs.

In-text citation:

Format
(First author - first name initial. last name, Year) OR First author - first name initial. last name  (Year)
(First author - first name initial. last name & second author - last name, Year) OR First author - first name initial. last name and second author - last name (Year)
Example
(B. S. Munro, 2007) OR B. S. Munro (2007) argues that….
(T. Munro, 2007) OR T. Munro (2007) stated that...
(S. Munro & Hall, 2015) found that ..... OR S. Munro and Hall (2015) found that .....

Authors with same last name and first initial

In-text citation:

Format
(Author - full first name last name, Year) OR Author - full first name last name (Year) has argued that ....
Example
(Talli Allen, 2021) OR Talli Allen (2021) has argued that ....
(Marin Simpson, 2015) OR Marin Simpson (2015) notes that ...

Works with same author(s) and same year

  • Arrange works with the same author(s) and same year alphabetically by the first significant word in the title (disregarding the words "A", "An", and "The") in the reference list. Place the letter after the year. The first reference listed uses a, the second uses b, etc.
  • If "in press" is used for the year, place dash between "press" and relevant letter eg. in press-c
  • Use each time the references are included. This includes for a single reference within a parentheses or multiple works in same parentheses.
Examples:
(Kent & Young, 2020a)
(Kent & Young, 2020b)
(Kent & Young, in press-c)
(Kent & Young, 2020a; Munro, 2018)

Three or more authors with same last name & same year

  • Include first author last name and as many of the subsequent author last names to distinguish the citation. 
  • For remaining authors, replace with et al.
  • If only final author name different, include author name instead of et al.

In-text citation:

Format
(Author last name, Author last name, Author last name et al., Year) OR Author last name, Author last name, Author last name et al. (Year)
Example
(Cleary, Brett, Bezanson, Baker et al., 2017) OR (Cleary, Brett, Bezanson, Thomas et al., 2017)

Works with no author(s) or editor(s)

In-text citation:

Format
("First words of article, chapter title" - in title case, Year) OR "First words of article, chapter title - in title case" (Year)
(Title of book, journal - in title case, Year) OR Title of book, journal - in title case (Year)
Example
("The Coral Sea", 2013) OR "The Coral Sea" (2013)
(The Great Barrier Reef, 2017) OR The Great Barrier Reef (2017)
  • Use double quotation marks "....." and title case (capitalise each word) for title of article, chapter or web page with no author.
  • Italicise title of journal, book, brochure or report with no author. Use title case.
  • Use title case for in-text references only. 

Authors included as "with"

In-text citation:

Format
(Author last name, Year)
  • Do not include "with" Author name.
Example
.....finding information (Campbell, 2005) OR Campbell (2005) claimed that …

Reference List:

Format
Author(s) – last name and initial(s). (with Author - last name and initial(s)).
Example
Campbell, P. J. (with Nevens, L. F.). (2005). Psychology. Thomson/Wadsworth

In-text citations

Incorporating citations in your work

Using in-text citations

  • No specific font type or size required. Recommendations include Calibri size 11, Arial size 11, Lucida size 10, Times New Roman size 12, Georgia size 11 or Computer Modern size 10 (LaTeX).
  • The last name of the author(s) and the year of publication are generally needed.
  • They can be part of a sentence (narrative) e.g. Allen (2020) has argued that ... or included within parentheses or brackets (parenthetical) e.g. (Allen, 2020).
  • A page number is included for a direct quote. Place a comma after the year and use p. for single page, pp. for multiple pages e.g. (Dombrow, 2014, p. 155) or Wardell (2022) has stated " ... " (pp. 32-33). If there is no identifiable page number, provide another way for the reader to find the quoted information, e.g. (heading or section name, paragraph, chapter, table or figure number)
  • When you paraphrase or refer to an idea from another work, a page number is not required. However, for longer works (e.g. books), it can be useful to include a page number to assist the reader to locate the relevant part of the work.
  • If there is no date, the abbreviation n.d. may be used e.g. (Walters, n.d.)
  • if work is not yet published, use in press e.g. (Smith, in press)

Group authors with known abbreviation

  • Groups as authors include government departments, professional associations, company names, organisations

In-text citation:

Format
First Use: 
(Group Name [abbreviation], Year) OR Group Name (abbreviation, Year)
Subsequent Uses:
(Abbreviation, Year) OR Abbreviation (Year)
Example
First use:
(Animal Welfare League [AWL], 2012) OR Animal Welfare League (AWL, 2012)
Subsequent Uses:
(AWL, 2012) OR AWL (2012)

Works with authors with same last name

  • Include each first author’s initials in all citations. Do this for the FIRST author only. 
  • Initials of first author are included even if year of publication differs.

In-text citation:

Format
(First author - first name initial. last name, Year) OR First author - first name initial. last name  (Year)
(First author - first name initial. last name & second author - last name, Year) OR First author - first name initial. last name and second author - last name (Year)
Example
(C. A. Brown, 2006) OR C. A. Brown (2006) suggests that….
(J. Dombrow, 2008) OR J. Dombrow (2008) outlined that...
(T. Allen & Simpson, 2014) found that ..... OR T. Allen and Simpson (2014) found that .....

Works with same author(s) and same year

  • Place an a, b, c etc after the year 
  • The letters are allocated in the reference list where references with the same first author last names are organised alphabetically by title. The first reference listed uses "a", second uses "b" etc.
  • If "in press" is used for the year, place dash between "press" and relevant letter eg. in press-c
  • Use each time the references are included. This includes for a single reference within a parentheses or multiple works in same parentheses.
Examples:
(Kent & Young, 2020a)
(Kent & Young, 2020b)
(Kent & Young, in press-c)
(Kent & Young, 2020a; Munro, 2018)

Work with no author(s) or editor(s)

In-text citation:

Format
("First words of article, chapter title" - in title case, Year) OR "First words of article, chapter title - in title case" (Year)
(Title of book, journal - in title case, Year) OR Title of book, journal - in title case (Year)
Example
("The Coral Sea", 2013) OR "The Coral Sea" (2013)
(The Great Barrier Reef, 2017) OR The Great Barrier Reef (2017)
  • Use double quotation marks "....." and title case (capitalise each word) for title of article, chapter or web page with no author.
  • Italicise title of journal, book, brochure or report with no author. Use title case.
  • Use title case for in-text references only. 

Multiple works within same reference

Two or more works by different authors

  • List works alphabetically (as they appear in the reference list)

  • Separate references with a semicolon ;

Example:
(Drinkwater, 2001; Jack et al., 2017)

Two or more works by the same author 

  • Order references by year of publication

  • Put n.d. (no date) references first

  • Put "in press" references last

  • Only use the author last name or groups name once then list the years

Examples:
(Monnier, n.d., 2013, 2016, 2019, in press)
(Education Queensland, 2011, 2013)
(Education Queensland, 2011; Monnier, 2013, 2016, 2019, in press)

Two or more works by the same author published in the same year 

  • Place an a, b, c etc after the year 

  • The letters are allocated in the reference list where references with the same first author last names are organised alphabetically by title.

  • Repeat each year with each letter used eg. 2018a, 2018b, 2018c

  • If "in press" is used, place dash between "press" and relevant letter eg. in press-c

  • Use this format each time the references are used in-text. 

Examples:
(Munro & Langan, 2010a)
(Munro & Langan, 2010a, 2010b, in press-c)
(Munro & Langan, 2010a, 2010b; Kohlman & Flanagan, 2006; Tourism Queensland, 2009)

Works that are reissued, reprinted, republished or translated

  • Both the original year and the reissued, reprinted, republished or translated year of the work needs to be included.

  • The years are separated by a forward slash /.

  • The original year is listed first.

Example:
(Austen, 1813/2015) OR Austen (1813/2015)

Reference list

Reference list layout & formatting

  • Centre the heading, References, at the top of the page
  • No specific font type or size required. Recommendations include Calibri size 11, Arial size 11, Lucida size 10, Times New Roman size 12, Georgia size 11 or Computer Modern size 10 (LaTeX).
  • The entire reference list is double spaced, with no spaces between the references.
  • Include all sources cited in your assessment.
  • A reference list is arranged alphabetically by author last name.
  • Each reference appears on a new line.
  • Each item in the reference list is required to have a hanging indent.
Zarate, K., Maggin, D. M., & Passmore, A. (2019). Meta‐analysis of mindfulness training on teacher well‐being. Psychology in the Schools, 56(10), 1700–1715. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.22308
  • References should not be numbered.
  • If a reference has no author, it is cited by title, and included in the alphabetical list using the first significant word of the title.
  • If you have more than one item with the same author, list the items chronologically, starting with the earliest publication.
  • If there is no date, the abbreviation n.d. may be used.
  • Use the full journal name, not the abbreviated name.
  • URLs or DOIs can either be live links (blue and underlined) or as normal black text with no underline. If the work containing the reference list is to be made available online, use the live link format.

Multiple works with same author(s) and same year

  • Arrange works with the same author(s) and same year alphabetically by the first significant word in the title (disregarding the words "A", "An", and "The") in the reference list. This then determines which references uses a, b, c etc.
  • Add the relevant letter after the year (which is also used for corresponding in-text references). The first reference listed in the reference list uses "a", second uses "b" etc.
Yang, Q., & Harris, J. G. (2010a). Dynamic range control for audio signals using fourth-order level estimation [Paper presentation]. 129th Audio Engineering Society Convention, San Francisco, CA.
Yang, Q., & Harris, J. G. (2010b). A higher-order spectro-temporal integration model for predicting signal audibility [Paper presentation]. International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Dallas, TX. 
(Yang & Harris, 2010a)
(Yang & Harris, 2010b)
  • If the date is n.d. (for no date), include a dash then the relevant letter at the end eg. n.d.-a. It will appear before any specified years.
  • If the date is "in press", include a dash then the relevant letter at the end eg. in press-a. It will appear after any specified years.
  • If a month and day are included, references with just a year are first, followed by specified dates in chronological order. For example:-
(Taylor, 2019a)
(Taylor, 2019b, May 14)
(Taylor, 2019c, August 3)
  • This applies to all reference types with the same author(s) and year.

Titles

  • Article or book chapter titles
    • use sentence case (the first word uses a capital letter with each subsequent word in lower case). The exceptions are for names eg. countries and after a colon : eg. Writing prose in Australia: Words of wisdom from the best
    • do not use single or double quotation marks.
    • do not italicise
  • Books (including when using book chapters) and reports titles
    • use sentence case  
    • italicise the title 
  • Journal, magazine and newspaper titles
    • should be provided in full (not abbreviated) and use capitals where appropriate (rather than sentence case) eg. Psychological Review.
    • they should be italicised.
  • Website titles should be italicised.  
  • No title
    • add a description of the reference used, including the type of reference in square brackets. For example, [Image of a child playing in outdoor playground]. 
  • For social media posts or comments without a title, add up to the first 20 words used in the post or comment and italicise it. Also include a description of the work in square brackets. For example, On Monday and Tuesday (16-17 December) this week, we are replacing computers in the PACE Health Sciences Library [Infographic].

Order of works with no author

  • Use the title in place of the author
  • List alphabetically
  • Use the first significant word of the title. Ignore "A", "And" and "The".

For example, 

The best 10 years of Radio magazine. (2003). Radio9(9), 79.
The only 10 recipes you'll ever need. (1998). Good Housekeeping227(3).

Publisher details

  • List multiple publisher names in the order in which they appear, separated by semicolons.
  • If the book is published by an imprint or division, use the imprint or division as the publisher (e.g. Churchill Livingstone, which is an imprint of Elsevier).
  • For publisher names, words like "Co.", "Publishers" or "Inc." should not be included. For example, use Springer, not Springer Publishers.
  • Places of publication are not included.
  • Do not include publisher name if it is the same as the author.

Publication date

  • Use n.d. if there is no date available
  • Use in press when the work is accepted for publication but has not been published
  • When the work has been published online prior to publication, include the year of when it was added online.
  • When a month, date or season is used, use (Year, Month Date) or (Year, Season). For example, (2019, November 8) or (2019, Autumn/Winter).
  • If a "Last Updated" date in used, include this as the publication date. This is only when the information has been clearly changed, not just reviewed.
  • For online works that are meant to be changed regularly eg. Facebook, dictionary entry, use Retrieved Month, Date, Year, from URL. For example, Retrieved November 8, 2019, from https://www.facebook.com/southerncrossuniversity/

Page numbers

  • Use the full page range and full page numbers eg. pp. 121 - 138
  • For an online publication that uses article numbers or similar, include Article then the article number in the Page Number place. For example, Article e09645731
  • Page numbers are included when you are referring to a section of a greater work eg. book chapter, journal article.

Abbreviations

Abbreviation      Book or publication part
ed. edition
Rev. ed. Revised edition
2nd ed. second edition
2nd Aust. ed. second Australian edition
Ed. (Eds.) Editor (Editors)
Trans. Translator(s)
Vol. Volume (as in Vol. 4)
Vols. Volumes (as in Vols. 1-4)
No. Number
Pt. Part
Tech. Rep. Technical Report
Suppl. Supplement

 

(Taken from APA, 2019, pp. 306-307)

Example reference list

References 

Ballard, T., Yeo, G., B. Vancouver, J., & Neal, A. (2017). The dynamics of avoidance goal regulation [Advance online publication]. Motivation and Emotion, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-017-9640-8

Brown, C. G. (2020). Ethical and legal considerations for using mind–body interventions in schools. In Promoting mind–body health in schools: Interventions for mental health professionals. (pp. 113-128). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000157-008

Carson-Chahhoud, K. V., Ameer, F., Sayehmiri, K., Hnin, K., van, A. J. E., Sayehmiri, F., Brinn, M. P., Esterman, A. J., Chang, A. B., & Smith, B. J. (2017). Mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(6). http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD001006.pub3/abstract

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975/2000). Beyond boredom and anxiety. Jossey-Bass. (Original work published 1975).

Dravsnik, J., Signal, T., & Canoy, D. (2018). Canine co‐therapy: The potential of dogs to improve the acceptability of trauma‐focused therapies for children. Australian Journal of Psychology, 70, 208-216. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/ajpy.12199

Leigh, J. (2010). Self-determined mindfulness and attachment style in college students (Publication Number 305210119) [Doctoral dissertation, Indiana State University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Malcolm, L. (2002-present). All in the mind [Audio podcast]. https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/allinthemind/

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. (n.d.). Wikipedia. Retrieved November 20, 2019, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness-based_cognitive_therapy&oldid=905716408

O’Brien, B. (2017, May 5). NVivo 11 training - full video (5/4/17) - updated [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eNo-Qxsp-mk

Office of Fair Trading. (2018, August 17). Community groups key to seniors staying engaged [Press release]. https://www.qld.gov.au/law/laws-regulated-industries-and-accountability/queensland-laws-and-regulations/fair-trading-services-programs-and-resources/fair-trading-latest-news/media-statements/community-groups-key-to-seniors-staying-engaged

Quealy-Gainer, K. (2014, 16 April). I kill the mockingbird by Paul Acampora (review). Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books, 67(10), 494-494. https://doi.org/10.1353/bcc.2014.0415

Rappaport, J., & Dubin, C. S. (1983, January 24). Say no more (Season 11, Episode 12) [Television series episode]. In B. Metcalfe, M*A*S*H. 20th Century Fox Television; CBS.

Shapiro, R. E., & Cowan, R. (2017, January 10). Key points about caffeine and migraines. American Migraine Foundation. https://americanmigrainefoundation.org/resource-library/caffeine-and-migraine/

Siegal, Z. V., Teasdale, J. D., & Williams, G. M. G. (2011). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: Theoretical rationale and empirical status. In S. C. Hayes, V. M. Follette, & M. M. Linehan (Eds.), Mindfulness and acceptance: Expanding the cognitive-behavioral tradition (pp. 45-65). Guilford Publications. https://books.google.com.au/books?id=Tr0N7aGgAS4C

Simon, P., & Garfunkel, A. (1965). The sounds of silence. On Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. [Song]. Columbia.

U2. (1988). Rattle and hum [Album]. Island; Sun Studio; Point Depot; Danesmoat; STS Studio; A&M Studios; Ocean Way.

Yang, Q., & Harris, J. G. (2010a). Dynamic range control for audio signals using fourth-order level estimation [Paper presentation]. 129th Audio Engineering Society Convention, San Francisco, CA.

Yang, Q., & Harris, J. G. (2010b). A higher-order spectro-temporal integration model for predicting signal audibility [Paper presentation]. International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Dallas, TX. 

Zachary, K. C. (2018). Treatment of seasonal influenza in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved May 3, 2018, from https://www-uptodate-com.ezp3.library.uq.edu.au/contents/treatment-of-seasonal-influenza-in-adults

Secondary source (indirect citation)

What is an indirect citation or secondary source?

An indirect citation or secondary source is when the ideas of one author are published in another author’s text but you have not read or accessed the original author’s work.

  • Include both the original author and year and the author and year of the work where quote/idea was found in the in-text reference.
  • Add "as cited in" before the author in the in-text reference. For example - (Harris, 2009, as cited in Lewis, 2019).
  • In the reference list, provide the details of the work in which you found the quotation or idea.

Citing a secondary source (indirect citation)

Elements of the reference
Follow the format of the reference in which you found the indirect citation.
In-text citation
(Original author last name, Year of original work, as cited in Author last name of work where quote found, Year)
Miller (1953, as cited in Agrios, 2005) found … OR … as was found (Miller, 1953, as cited in Agrios, 2005).
Reference list
Agrios, G.N. (2005). Plant pathology (5th ed.). Elsevier Academic Press.
EndNote reference type
  • Use the relevant reference type for the item you are citing.
  • Add “cited in” manually in the "Prefix" box, using “Edit Citation” option

Audio works (e.g. music, podcast)

Song

Note: When quoting directly from the lyrics, include a time stamp in the in-text citation.

Elements of the reference
Singer or composer - last name, initial(s). (Year). Song Title [Song]. On Album Title - italicised. Record Company. (Original work published Year - if needed). URL - if needed
In-text citation
(Little, 2000) OR Little (2000) sang about ....
In-text citation - direct quote
(Kelly, 2004, 00:02:40) OR Kelly (2004, 00:02:40) sang ....
Reference list
Little, J. (2000). Royal telephone [Song]. On Buried country. Festival Mushroom. 
EndNote reference type
Music

Album

Elements of the reference
Group name or singer - last name, initial(s). (Year). Title of album - italicised [Album]. Record Company. (Original work published Year - if needed). URL - if needed
In-text citation
(Central Australian Aboriginal Media Association (N.T.), 1998) OR Central Australian Aboriginal Media Association (N.T.) (1998) sang about ....
Reference list
Central Australian Aboriginal Media Association (N.T.). (1998). Strong culture: Aboriginal music in Aboriginal languages [Album]. CAAMA Music.
EndNote reference type
Audiovisual material

Podcast

Elements of the reference
Author - last name, initial(s) (Role eg. Host). (Year - Year). Title - italicised, [Type Podcast]. Publisher. URL - if available
In-text citation
(Jones, 2020-present) OR Jones (2020-present)
Reference list
  • If accessed via app or no web address, leave out web address
Jones, A. (Host). (2020-present). Nature track [Audio podcast]. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/nature-track/
EndNote reference type
Podcast - convert to plain text. Add (Host) after author name.

Podcast episode

Note: When quoting directly from the lyrics, include a time stamp in the in-text citation.

Elements of the reference
Author - last name, initial(s) (Role eg. Host). (Year, Month Day). Episode Title (No. Episode Number - if available) [Type podcast episode]. In Series Title - italicised. Publisher. URL - if available
In-text citation
(Jones, 2021) OR Jones (2021)
In-text citation - direct quote
(Mcfarlane, 2019, 00:16:10) OR Macfarlane (2019, 00:16:10) concluded ...
Reference list
  • If accessed via app or no web address, leave out web address
Jones, A. (Host). (2021, August 17).Heavy rain and desert thunder [Audio podcast episode] Nature Track. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/nature-track/heavy-rain-and-desert-thunder/13481846
EndNote reference type
Podcast - convert to plain text. Add (Host) after author name.

Radio broadcast

Official APA style example for radio broadcast

  • Use the name of the announcer as the author.

  • Include the full date of the radio broadcast.

Elements of the reference
Author - last name, initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Title [Radio broadcast]. Site name. URL - if available
In-text citation
(Rosso, 2020) OR Rosso (2020) mentions that...
Reference list
Rosso, J. D. (2020, August 13). Satire, power and race on the Screen Show [Radio broadcast]. ABC Radio. https://radio.abc.net.au/programitem/pe4D72jyxL
EndNote reference type
Audiovisual material

Radio interview recording in a digital archive

  • For interviews housed in digital or physical archives (whether audio or audiovisual), credit the interviewee as the author.
  • When quoting directly from the interview, include a time stamp in the in-text citation
Elements of the reference
Author - last name, initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Title [Description]. Archive name. Site name. URL - if available
In-text citation
(de Beauvoir, 1960) OR As de Beauvoir (1960) states ...
In-text citation - direct quote
(Doogue, 1972, 00:12:30) OR As Doogue (1972, 00:12:30) states ...
Reference list
de Beauvoir, S. (1960, May 4). Simone de Beauvoir discusses the art of writing [Interview]. Studs Terkel Radio Archive; The Chicago History Museum. https://studsterkel.wfmt.com/programs/simone-de-beauvoir-discusses-art-writing
EndNote reference type
Audiovisual material

Speech audio recording

Note: When quoting directly from the lyrics, include a time stamp in the in-text citation.

Elements of the reference
Author - last name, initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of speech [Description]. Site name. URL - if available
In-text citation
(King, 1963) OR King (1963) stated ...
In-text citation - direct quote
(Staunton, 1980, 01:20:00) OR Staunton (1980, 01:20:00) stated ...
Reference list
King, M. L., Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric. https://americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm
EndNote reference type
Audiovisual material

Books

One author

Elements of the reference 
Author(s) – last name, initial(s). (Year). Title of book - italicised. Publisher.
In-text citation
(Mayer, 2010) OR Mayer (2010) 
Reference list 
Mayer, D. (2010). Essential evidence-based medicine (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Endnote reference type
Book 

Two authors

Elements of the reference
Author(s) – last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of book - italicised. Publisher.
In-text citation
  • Always list the authors in the order in which they appear in the publication.
  • Cite both authors for each use of reference.

Examples:

(Delmas & Colgan, 2018) OR Delmas and Colgan (2018) 
Reference list 
Delmas, M., & Colgan, D. (2018). The green bundle: Pairing the market with the planet. Stanford University Press.
Endnote reference type
Book

Three to twenty authors

Elements of the reference
Author(s) – last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of book - italicised. Publisher.
In-text citation
  • Cite last name of first author followed by “et al.”
(Glasgow et al., 2006) OR Glasgow et al. (2006) found that....
Reference list 
Glasgow, N. A., McNary, S. J., & Hicks, C. D. (2006). What successful teachers do in diverse classrooms. Corwin Press.
Endnote reference type
Book

Twenty one or more authors

Elements of the reference
Author(s) – last name, initial(s) (for first 19 authors), . . . final author - family name and initial(s). (Year). Title of book – italicised. Publisher.
In-text citation

  • Cite last name of first author followed by “et al.”
(Abraham et al., 2017) OR Abraham et al. (2017) found that....
Reference list 
Abraham, C., Miller Z., Ellis, S., Driscoll, J., Renman-Fryer, R., Fuller, J., Bayer, S. A., Faben, M., Mellor, K., Murphy, N., O'Neill, J., Tosh, M. E., Ciccaglione, A. R., Hoffnan, A., Zala, H., Langer, H., de Souza, R., Avermore, A., Sunderland, L., … Inman, S. (2017). Introduction to evidence-based practice in nursing. Oxford University Press.
Endnote reference type
Book

No author

Elements of the reference
Title of book - italicised (Year). Publisher.
In-text citation

  • Cite in the text the first few words of the title and the year. Italicise the book title.
Management is defined as (CCH Macquarie Dictionary, 1993) OR CCH Macquarie Dictionary (1993) defines…
Reference list 
The CCH Macquarie dictionary of business. (1993). CCH Australia.
Endnote reference type
Book

Author identified as anonymous

  • Use only if author is specifically named as “Anonymous”
Elements of the reference
Anonymous - only if author is specifically named as “Anonymous”. (Year). Title of book - italicised. Publisher.
In-text citation

(Anonymous, 1996)
Reference list 
Anonymous. (1996). Primary colors: A novel of politics. Random House.
Endnote reference type
Book

Book by an organisation or institution (group author)

Elements of the reference
Author(s) – last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of book - italicised. Publisher.
In-text citation

(Queensland Health, 2002) OR Queensland Health (2002) recommends that….
Reference list
  • If the author name is the same as the publisher, omit the publisher.
Queensland Health. (2002). Best practice guidelines for the management of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents.
Endnote reference type
  • Add a comma , after each group author eg. Queensland Health, in the Author field
Book

Ebook

  • Always include a DOI if available.
  • If from an academic database (Proquest, Ebsco) and without a DOI, do not include the name of the database and end the reference after the publisher name - like a print book.
  • Only include a URL if it is stable (will not change overtime). Refer to APA's When to include DOIs and URLs to check what a stable URL is and when to include it.
Elements of the reference
Author(s) – last name, initial(s). (Year). Title of book - italicised. Publisher. DOI or stable URL
In-text citation

(Stern, 2007) OR Stern (2007) shows that ...
Reference list
With a DOI
Stern, N. (2007). The economics of climate change: The Stern Review. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511817434
With a stable URL
Chapman, R. W. (Ed.). (2013). Pride and prejudice by Jane Austen. Project Gutenberg. https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/42671
Without a stable URL - like a print book
Bakermans, M. (2021). Climate lessons: Environmental, social, local. Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
Endnote reference type
Book

Book chapter

Referencing multiple chapters from same book 

  • If there are different authors for each chapter, you need to reference EACH chapter you use, because you need to acknowledge who wrote the work you are using, not the person who edited/compiled the book.
  • If the book does not have chapters written by different authors, you only need to reference the book. 
  • For ebooks, include a DOI (if no DOI, the URL) at the end of the reference.

Chapter from an edited book

Elements of the reference
Author(s) of chapter – last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of chapter. In Editor(s) – initial(s) and family name - of book (Ed. OR Eds.), Title of book – italicised (pp. Page numbers). Publisher. [If an ebook, include the DOI - if no DOI, use the URL of the ebook provider]
In-text citation
  • Use the chapter authors, NOT the editors of the book
  • Treat multiple authors in same format as books
(Rattan, 2019) OR According to Rattan (2019) ...
Reference list - chapter from ebook
Rattan, A. (2019). How lay theories (or mindsets) shape the confrontation of prejudice. In R. K. Mallett & M. J. Monteith (Eds.), Confronting prejudice and discrimination: The science of changing minds and behaviors (pp. 121-140). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814715-3.00008-4
Reference list - chapter from hardcopy book
Parker, J. (2014). Nursing as art and science. In J. Daly, S. Speedy & D. Jackson (Eds.), Contexts of nursing: An introduction (pp. 38-51). Churchill Livingston. 
EndNote reference type
Book section

Different editions

Edition other than the first

Format
  • Second edition = 2nd ed.
  • Third edition = 3rd ed.
  • Fourth edition = 4th ed.
  • Revised edition = Rev. ed.
  • Abridged edition = Abr. ed.

The edition statement is placed after the title of the work. This is not necessary for a first edition.

Elements of the reference
Author(s) – last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of book - italicised (Edition number ed.). Publisher. DOI - if no DOI, use the URL of the ebook provider
In-text citation

(DeHart et al., 1995) OR DeHart et al. (1995) state the idea that…
Reference list 
DeHart, G. B., Sroufe, L.A., & Cooper, R. G. (1995). Child development: Its nature and course (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill.
Endnote reference type
Book

Edited book

Elements of the reference
Editor(s) – last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple editors. (Ed. or Eds.). (Year). Title of book - italicised. Publisher. DOI - if no DOI, use the URL of the ebook provider
In-text citation

Treat multiple editors same as multiple authors

(Luiselli, 2017) OR Luiselli (2017)
Reference list 
Luiselli, J. K. (Ed.). (2017). Applied behavior analysis advanced guidebook: A manual for professional practice. Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/C2016-0-01055-0

If the book's chapters are written by different authors to the editor(s), you must reference each chapter you use as a book chapter.

Endnote reference type
Edited book

Translation of a book

Elements of the reference
Author(s) – last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of book - italicised (Translator name - first initial. last name, Trans.; Edition - if available). Publisher. (Original work published Year). DOI - if no DOI, use the URL of the ebook provider
In-text citation
  • Include original year of publication first and then year of translated publication.

(Castro, 2006/2008) OR Castro (2006/2008)

Reference list 
Castro, F. (2008). My life (A. Hurley, Trans.). Dover. (Original work published 2006).
Endnote reference type
Book
EndNote tips
  • Enter translator’s name in Translator field
  • Add Original work published Year to Original Publication field

Religious, classical or ancient text

  • Treat these works as books or webpages depending on the version you use. See Citing classical and religious works for more information and example references.
  • Religious works are usually treated as having no author.
  • In-text citation contains two dates, the earliest first, separated by an /.
Elements of the reference
Religious works
Author/Title. (Year). Title of work. Publisher. DOI - if no DOI, use the URL of the ebook provider
Classical or ancient text
Author name. (Year). Title of work (edition or translation details if applicable)Publisher. URL - if online (Original work published date)
In-text citation
(King James Bible, 1769/2017)
The Qur'an (2004) states ...
Shakespeare (1623/1995) shows ...
Reference list 
King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/ (Original work published 1769)
The Qur'an (M. A. S. Abdel Haleem, Trans.). (2004). Oxford University Press.
The Torah: The five books of Moses (3rd ed.). (2015). The Jewish Publication Society. (Original work published 1962)
Aristotle. (1994). Poetics (S. H. Butcher, Trans.).  The Internet Classic Archive. http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotole/poetics.html (Original work published ca. 350 B.C.E.)
Shakespeare, W. (1995). Much ado about nothing (B. A. Mowat & P. Werstine, Eds.). Washington Square Press. (Original work published 1623)
Endnote reference type
Depending on the source, select ancient work, book, classical text or webpage

 

Illustrated / picture book

Elements of the reference 
Author(s) – last name, initial(s). (Year). Title of book - italicised (Initial. Last name, Illus.). Publisher. DOI - if no DOI, use the URL of the ebook provider
In-text citation
(Nekrasov, 2021) OR Nekrasov (2021) 
Reference list 
Nekrasov, C. (2021). The bird that couldn't fly (C. Brown, Illus.).  Red Page Press.
Endnote reference type

Book - add the illustrators details into the reference after converting to plain text.

Open educational resource (OER)

Elements of the reference
Author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Date - year, month day - provide as specific as possible). Title of book - italisised. OER Publisher/Repository. Retrieved month day, year, from URL of the book
In-text citation
(Fagan, 2019) OR Fagan (2019) states ...
Reference list
Fagan, J. (2019, March 25). Nursing clinical brain. OER Commons. Retrieved January 7, 2020, from https://www.oercommons.org/authoring/53029-nursing-clinical-brain/view
Endnote reference type
Webpage

Conferences

Conference proceedings

  • Conference proceedings published in a journal follow the same format as a journal article reference.
  • Conference proceedings published as a book follow the same format as an edited book reference.
  • Conference proceedings published as a book chapter follow the same format as an edited book chapter reference.
  • For more information and example references, view the official APA Conference proceeding references.

Conference presentation

Elements of the reference
Author(s) – last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year, Month date(s)). Title of paper - italicised. [Type of paper eg. Paper presentation]. Conference Name, Location. DOI or URL - if available
In-text citation
(Norton et al., 2018) OR Norton et al. (2018) stated that ...
Reference list
Norton, M., Moloney, G., Burke, S., Sanson, A., & Louis, W. (2018, September 27-30). Psychological responses to social threats: From stigma to solidarity [Paper presentation]. 2018 APS Congress Psychology Advancing into a New Age, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
EndNote reference type
Conference paper - add type of paper to Type field

Poster presentation

Elements of the reference
Author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year, Month, date(s)). Title - italicised [Poster presentation]. Conference Name, Location. DOI or URL - if available
In-text citation
(Snoswell, 2016) OR Snoswell (2016)
Reference list
Snoswell, C. (2016, October 31 - November 3). Models of care for store-and-forward teledermatology in Australia [Poster presentation]. 7th International Conference on Successes and Failures in Telehealth, Auckland, New Zealand.
EndNote reference type
Conference paper - add Poster presentation to Type field

Course or unit materials

Lecture notes

  • The author is the creator of the lecture notes, not necessarily the person who presents/facilitates/delivers the lecture/workshop. If the creator can not be identified, use the Southern Cross University as the author. 
Elements of the reference
Author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year; Year, Month Day). Topic title - italicised [Lecture notes]. Southern Cross University Unit Number MySCU. Login URL
In-text citation
  • Only include Year 
(Aggar, 2017) OR Aggar (2017) mentioned that...
Reference list
Aggar, C. A. (2017, July 28). Topic 2: Palliative care and nursing in Australia [Lecture notes]. Southern Cross University MAT71004 MySCU. https://learn.scu.edu.au
Endnote reference type
Online multimedia
Endnote tips
  • Add Lecture notes to Type of Work field
  • Add Site name to Distributor field

Module Content

Elements of the reference
Faculty Name. (Year). Module title: Subtitle - italicised [Module content]. Southern Cross University Unit Code MySCU. URL of login screen
In-text citation
(Faculty of Business, Law & Arts, 2022) OR In ARTD1001, Module 1 shows that ... (Faculty of Business, Law & Arts, 2022)
Reference list
Faculty of Business, Law & Arts. (2022). Module 1: Drawing as a means of observation [Module content]. Southern Cross University ARTD1001 MySCU. https://learn.scu.edu.au 

Study guide (html/web version)

  • If the study guide has been revised, include the names of the people who wrote and revised it as "authors", if the contribution of each person was substantial or not specified.
Elements of the reference
Author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year). Topic title: Subtitle - italicised [Web study guide]. Southern Cross University Unit code MySCU. URL of login screen
In-text citation
(Wessel, 2014) OR In the study guide, Wessel (2014) said ...
(School of Health and Human Sciences, 2020)
Reference list
Wessell, A. (2014). Topic 3: Reading/writing history: Interpreting the sources [Web study guide]. Southern Cross University HIS10016 MySCU. https://learn.scu.edu.au 
School of Health & Human Sciences. (2020). Topic 3: Ethics  [Web study guide]. Southern Cross University MAT71004 MySCU. https://learn.scu.edu.au/

 

myReadings item

Item on myReadings list

Reference the original source. So, if the myReadings item is a chapter in an edited book, or a journal article, for example, follow the guidelines for those information sources. 

Referencing your own assignment

  • Past assignments are regarded as unpublished works and therefore do not need to be included into your reference list.
  • However, sometimes your lecturer may advise/allow you to reference a previous assignment and include it in your reference list.

Elements of the reference

Your last name, initials. (Year). Title of your assignment - Italicised [Description of assignment submitted for Unit code]. Southern Cross University. 
In-text citation 
(Brown, 2022) OR Brown (2022) stated that....
Reference list
Brown, J. (2022). Early Midwifery in Australia [Unpublished assignment submitted for MIDW1001] Southern Cross University.

PowerPoint slides

  • If the slides come from a classroom website, learning management system (e.g. MySCU), or a company intranet and you are writing for an audience with access to that resource, provide the name of the site and its URL (use the login page for sites requiring login).
  • If the audience for which are you writing does not have access to the slides, cite them as a personal communication.
Elements of the reference
Author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year; Year, Month Day). Lecture notes/Topic title - italicised [PowerPoint slides]. Southern Cross University Unit Number MySCU. Login URL
In-text citation
(Mack & Spake, 2018) OR Mack and Spake (2018)
Reference list
Mack, R., & Spake, G. (2018). Citing open source images and formatting references for presentations [PowerPoint slides]. Southern Cross University EDU00716 MySCU. https://learn.scu.edu.au
Endnote reference type
Online multimedia
Endnote tips
  • Add PowerPoint slides to Type of Work field
  • Add Site name to Distributor field

Multiple images in one PowerPoint slide

Example

Discussion forum posts

  • If you are writing for an audience with access to that resource, provide the name of the site and its URL (use the login page for sites requiring login).
Elements of the reference
Author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year, Month Day {of post}). Full title of discussion thread/post: Unit number and name - italicised [Online forum post]. Southern Cross University MySCU. Login site URL
In-text citation
(Hagon, 2009) OR Hagon (2009) stated that.....
Reference list
Hagon, P. (2009, September 27). Forum: Assessment 2 post: BHS10581 Psychology and Sociology for Health Sciences [Online forum post]. Southern Cross University MySCU. https://learn.scu.edu.au

Online forum comment (MySCU)

  • If you are writing for an audience with access to that resource, provide the name of the site and its URL (use the login page for sites requiring login).
Elements of the reference
Author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year, Month Day {of comment}). Full title of discussion thread/comment: Unit number and name - italicised [Comment on the online forum post Title of post]. Southern Cross University MySCU. Login site URL 
In-text citation 
(Scott, 2009) OR Scott (2009) stated that....
Reference list
Scott, J. (2009, October 3). Rural midwife experience [Comment on the online forum post Reflections on being a midwife] Southern Cross University MySCU. https://learn.scu.edu.au

Datasets, standards & statistics

Dataset - individual author

Elements of the reference
Investigator(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year). Title of dataset - italicised (Version - if needed)  [Description of format or type]. Name of publisher - if available. DOI or URL
In-text citation
(Wong & Langevin, 2007) OR Wong and Langevin (2007) found that ....
Reference list
Wong, K. K., & Langevin, W. E. (2007). Policy expansion of school choice in the American states, 1991-2005 (Version 1) [Dataset]. ICPSR. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR20427.v1
EndNote reference type
Dataset

Dataset - group author

Elements of the reference
Group author(s). (Year). Title of dataset - italicised (Version - if needed) [Description of format or type]. Name of publisher - if available. DOI or URL
In-text citation
(Pew Hispanic Center, 2004) OR The Pew Hispanic Center (2004) reported that ....
Reference list
Pew Hispanic Center. (2004). Changing channels and crisscrossing cultures: A survey of Latinos on the news media [Data file and code book]. http://pewhispanic.org/datasets/
EndNote reference type
Dataset

Unpublished or raw dataset

Elements of the reference
Investigator(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year). Title - italicised OR [Description of data - if untitled] [Unpublished raw data]. Data source - if available. 
In-text citation
(Allen & Brown, 2021) OR Allen and Brown (2021) found that ....
Reference list
Allen, T., & Brown, C. A. (2021). Trial and error [Unpublished raw data]. Southern Cross University.
EndNote reference type
Dataset

Standard from SAI Global

Elements of the reference
Name of standards organisation. (Year). Title of standard - italicised (Standard number). Publisher. URL of homepage of publisher- if available
In-text citation
(Standards Australia, 1994) OR Standards Australia (1994) presents ...
Reference list
Standards Australia. (1994). The storage and handling of corrosive substances (AS 3780-1994). SAI Global. https://www.saiglobal.com/online/
EndNote reference type
Report - add standard number into Report Number field

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) publications

Elements of the reference
Publisher. (Year). Title of publication: Subtitle. URL of specific document
In-text citation
(Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2013) OR The Australian Bureau of Statistics (2013) shows that ...
Reference list
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2013). Regional population growth: Australia, 2011-2012. https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Products/3218.0~2011-12~Main+Features~Main+Features?OpenDocument
EndNote reference type
Report

Dictionaries or encyclopedias

Dictionary or encyclopedia – print version

Elements of the reference
Author(s) or editor(s) of work – last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors or editors. (Ed. or Eds. - if editor used). (Year). Title - italicised (Edition - if other than first). Publisher.
In-text citation
(Vogt & Johnson, 2016) OR Vogt and Johnson (2016), argued that ....
Reference list
Vogt, W. P., & Johnson, B. (2016). The SAGE dictionary of statistics & methodology: A nontechnical guide for the social sciences (5th ed.). SAGE.
EndNote reference type
Book OR Edited book (if editor used)

 

Dictionary or encyclopedia entry - individual author

Elements of the reference
Author(s) or editor(s) of work – last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors or editors. (Year). Entry title. In Editors - initial(s). Initial(s). Last Name - use & for multiple editors (ed. or Eds), Title of dictionary or encyclopaedia - italicised (Edition ed.). Publisher. DOI or URL - if available 
In-text citation
(Redmond, 2017) OR Redmond (2017)
Reference list
Redmond, B. F. (2017). Affective events theory. In S.G. Rogelberg (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed.). Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781483386874.n10
EndNote reference type
Electronic book section

Dictionary or encyclopedia entry - group author

Elements of the reference
Group author. (Year or n.d.). Title of entry. In Title of dictionary or encyclopaedia - italicised. Publisher (if the same as the author, omit). Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL
In-text citation
(American Psychological Association, n.d.) OR The American Psychological Association (n.d.) defined ....
Reference list
American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Mindfulness meditation. In APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved November 21, 2019, from https://dictionary.apa.org/mindfulness-meditation
EndNote reference type
Electronic book section

Dictionary or encyclopedia entry - no author

Elements of the reference
Entry title. (Year). In Editors - Initial(s). Last Name - use & for multiple editors (Ed. OR Eds.), Title of dictionary or encyclopaedia - italicised (Edition - if other than first ed.). DOI or URL - if available
In-text citation
(Accretion, 2018)
Reference list
Accretion. (2018). In H. Marcovitch (Ed.), Black's medical dictionary (43rd ed.). A&C Black. https://login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/blackmed/accretion/0?institutionId=180
EndNote reference type
Electronic book section

Education curriculum documents

Australian Curriculum Documents

  • The Australian Curriculum is created and published online by the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA).

  • The website has no date, so is referenced as (n.d.). If you download the document as a pdf, reference the full date.

Elements of the reference
Individual or Group author. (Year, Month Day - if available). Title of page - italicised. Website name - if needed. URL

[Note: omit the website name if the author and website name are the same.]

In-text citation
  • First time the organisation is cited include full name, then acronym and date if available.
  • If including a direct quote or referring to a specific section/stage/outcome of the curriculum, use the curriculum identifier.
(Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], n.d.) OR The Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA, 2015) shows that ...
Subsequent citation with curriculum identifier: (ACARA, n.d. ACMNA001)
Reference list
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2015, December). English: Sequence of content F-6 strand: Language. https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/media/4401/english_-_sequence_of_content.pdf
Endnote reference type
Web Page - add Month Day to Last Update Date field if needed.

Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF)

  • The Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) is part of the National Quality Framework for early childhood education and care.

  • Reference EYLF as a document on the web. The document is available to download from a few different websites, make sure you include the website name from which you downloaded the document.

Elements of the reference
Individual or Group author. (Year, Month Day - if available). Title of page - italicised. Website name - if needed. URL

[Note: omit the website name if the author and website name are the same.]

In-text citation
  • First time the organisation is cited include full name, then acronym and date.
  • Include a page number for a direct quote
(Department of Education and Training [DET], 2019) OR The Department of Education and Training (DET, 2019) shows that ...
Reference list
Department of Education and Training. (2019, March 6). Belonging, being and becoming: The early years learning framework for Australia. Department of Education. https://www.education.gov.au/download/775/belonging-being-becoming-early-years-learning-framework-australia/18161/document/pdf/en
Endnote reference type
Web Page - add Month Day to Last Update Date field if needed.

Figures (e.g.images)

Format for including figures in your text

APA considers all types of visual items (e.g. graphs, charts, photographs, drawings, infographics, maps and clip art), other than tables, as figures. Figures may be sourced from journal articles, books, reports, webpages, or websites.

  • Each figure needs to be numbered in the order in which they appear in the document.
  • If a figure is being reproduced for inclusion in a work which is being published, you must seek permission from the copyright holder. This permission must also be included in the note beneath the figure.
  • Include the full reference in the reference list.

Below is the format for displaying and acknowledging figures in the body of your work:

  • Number: written as Figure X in bold above the figure (e.g. Figure 1)
  • Title: one double-spaced line below the figure number, capitalised in italics (e.g. Storyboarding)
  • Note: underneath the figure; includes description (if required) and copyright attribution: reprinted or adapted status (if required), source details, copyright status, and permission statement (if required); italicised (e.g. Note. Description.of ...)

For your own figures (e.g. an image, such as a photograph, or a table/graph displaying your own data), only include a figure number and title above the figure. No citation, copyright attribution or reference list entry is required.

If you feel it needs to be made clear it is your own work, add "Own Work" on or under the image to avoid confusion. 

Refer to this page of the APA Style site for examples: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/tables-figures/sample-figures#illustration

Figure - from a book/report or book chapter

Elements of the reference
As for a book or chapter in an edited book [see Books page], or a report  [see Reports page]
Elements of in-text display:

Figure X

Title

[Image]

Note. Description (if required). From Title of Book or Report (p. xx), by Author(s) - Initial(s). Last name, year, Publisher (DOI or URL). Copyright year by Name of Copyright owner OR In the public domain OR CC BY-NC.

Note. Description (if required). From "Title of Chapter," by Author(s) - Initial(s). Last name(s), in Editor(s) - Initial(s). Last Name(s) (Ed. or Eds.), Title of Book.(any edition or volume number, p. xx), year, (DOI or URL). Copyright year by Name of Copyright owner OR In the public domain OR CC BY-NC.

In-text display - image from a book

Figure 3

Inspiration and Expiration

[Image]

Note. From Yoga in the Music Studio (p. 57), by L. S. McAllister, 2020, Oxford University Press (https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/scu/detail.action?docID=6176636). Copyright 2020 by Oxford University Press.

In-text display - image from a chapter in an edited book

Figure 6

One Decision-making Framework

[Image]

Note. Shaming and blaming. From "Midwifery Decision-Making," by L. Ebert, in E. Jefford and J. Jomeen (Eds.), Midwifery: A Global Perspective.(p. 203), 2020, (https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/scu/detail.action?docID=5887639).Copyright 2019 by Lyn Ebert.

Reference list - image from a book
McAllister, L. S. (2020). Yoga in the music studio. Oxford University Press.
Reference list - image from a chapter in an edited book
Ebert, L. (2020). Midwifery decision-making. In E. Jefford & J. Jomeen (Eds.), Midwifery: A global Perspective (pp. 197-208). Taylor &Francis Group.
EndNote reference type
Artwork - add type of image to Type of Work field

Figure - from a journal article

Elements of the reference
As for an online journal article [see Journal Articles page]
Elements of in-text display:

Figure X

Title

[Image]

Note. Description (if required). From "Title: Subtitle of article," by Author - Initial(s). Last name, year, Journal Title, Volume (italicised)(Issue), p. xx (DOI or URL). Copyright year by Name of Copyright owner OR In the public domain OR CC BY-NC.

In-text display

Figure 1

Storyboarding

[Image]

Note. Deciding on the story line and scenes. From "Digital animation:New conditions for children's development in play-based setting," by M. Fleer, 2018, British Journal of Educational Technology, 49(5), p. 952 (https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12637 2018). Copyright 2018 by British Educational Research Association.

Reference list
Fleer, M. (2018). Digital animation: New conditions for children's development in play-based setting. British Journal of Educational Technology, 49(5), p. 952. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12637
EndNote reference type
Artwork - add type of image to Type of Work field

Figure - from a webpage or website

Elements of the reference
As for a webpage or website [see Websites, webpages page]
Elements of in-text display:

Figure X

Title

[Image]

Note. Description (if required). From Title of Webpage, by Author - Initial(s). Last name, year, (DOI or URL). Copyright year by Name of Copyright owner OR In the public domain OR CC BY-NC.

In-text display

Figure 2

International students studying at Southern Cross University

[Image]

Note. From Southern Cross University Shines in Online Offshore Courses, by Southern Cross University, 2021 (https://www.scu.edu.au/engage/news/latest-news/2021/southern-cross-university-shines-in-online-offshore-courses.php). Copyright 2018 by Southern Cross University.

Reference list
Southern Cross University. (2021). Southern Cross University shines in online offshore courses. [Photograph of international students studying]. Southern Cross University. https://www.scu.edu.au/engage/news/latest-news/2021/southern-cross-university-shines-in-online-offshore-courses.php
EndNote reference type
Artwork - add type of image to Type of Work field

Infographic

Note:

To include the entire infographic in your work, permission and/or a copyright attribution and reference list entry will likely be required. 

Elements of the reference
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title [Description]. Site name. URL
In-text display - example where the infographic is included 

Figure 6

Ratio of Women in National Parliaments

[Image]

Note. From Women and Equality in National Parliaments, by K. Ivett, 2017, Information is Beautiful Awards (https://www.informationisbeautifulawards.com/showcase/1850-women-and-equality-in-national-parliaments). Copyright 2021 by Information is Beautiful.

In-text citation - example where content only from the infographic is included
(Ivett, 2017) OR According to Ivett (2017) ...
Reference list
Ivett, K. (2017). Women and equality in national parliaments [Infographic]. Kantar Information is Beautiful Awards. https://www.informationisbeautifulawards.com/showcase/1850-women-and-equality-in-national-parliaments
EndNote reference type
Add Infographic to Type of Work field

Using stock images, clip art and Creative Commons images

Notes:

  • Attribution of a stock image is determined by its licence. The licence may indicate that no attribution, citation or reference is required, OR it may indicate that all of these elements are needed. The licence requirements apply regardless of whether the image costs money or is free, and to both papers and PowerPoint presentations.
  • In most cases, clip art does not require permission to reproduce. A licence which allows unattributed use of clip art images comes with purchase of computer programs, like Microsoft Word.
  • Check the copyright status of images from free clip art sites, to identify if a copyright attribution, citation or reference is required.
Elements of the reference
Group author(s) or author - last name, initial(s) - use & to combine authors. (Year). Title - italicised [Description - e.g. Photograph]. Site name. URL
Elements of in-text display - where no attribution required

Figure X

Title

[Image]

Note. Description (if required).

In-text display - example where no attribution required

Figure 1

Relaxing

[Image]

Note. Person relaxing in nature.

Reference list - example where no attribution required
No reference list entry required
Elements of in-text display - where attribution required

Figure X

Title

[Image]

Note. Description (if required). From Title of Webpage, by Author - Initial(s). Last name, year, Site Name (DOI or URL). Copyright year by Name of Copyright owner OR In the public domain OR CC BY-NC.

In-text display - example where attribution is required

Figure 2

Example of New York Appartment Building

[Image]

Note. From 361 Broadway - James While Building [Photograph], by ajay_suresh, 2021, Flickr (https://www.flickr.com/photos/ajay_suresh/51522453870/). CC BY 2.0.

Reference list - example where attribution is required
ajay_suresh. (2021). 361 Broadway - James While Building [Photograph]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/ajay_suresh/51522453870/
EndNote reference type
Artwork
EndNote tips
  • Add Clip art OR Stock image to Type of Work field
  • Add provider of image eg. shutterstock to Publisher field

Figures in PowerPoint or poster presentations

Notes:

  • Where use of the image requires attribution of the copyright owner (according to the licence on the source), the figure number and title may be excluded, but a note under the image and a reference list entry should still be provided
  • If the image is a stock image or clip art from a site where no attribution is required, the figure number, title, note and reference may be excluded
Elements of the note below figure (only required if attribution is needed):

Note. Description if necessary. From [or Adapted from] Title of image [format]by A. B. Author and C. D. Author, year, site name [if available] (http://URL). Copyright [year] by Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission [if necessary]/In the public domain/CC BY-NC

Example - multiple images on one slide (with note and reference list entry)

Film & television

Film or movie

Elements of the reference
Director(s) - or similar eg. Executive Producer - last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple names [Descriptor - eg. Director or Producer]. (Year). Title of film or movie - italicised [Film; list details of format eg. two disc special edition - if needed]. Production Company. URL - if available
In-text citation
(Gameau, 2015)  OR Gameau (2015)
Reference list
Gameau, D. [Director]. (2015). That sugar film [Film]. Madman Entertainment.
Scott, R. [Director]. (2006). Blade runner [Film; director's cut on DVD]. Roadshow.
EndNote reference type
Film or broadcast - as last step, convert to plain text. Add [Director] as needed.

Film or video in another language

  • Include a translation of the film title in square brackets.
Elements of the reference
Director(s) - last name, initial(s). [Descriptor eg. Director]. (Year). Title of work in original language - italicised [Translation of the title] [Type of work]. Production Company. URL - if available
In-text citation
(Malle, 1987)  OR Malle (1987)
Reference list
Malle, L. (Director). (1987). Au revoir les enfants [Goodbye children] [Film]. Nouvelles Editions de Films.
EndNote reference type
Film or broadcast - As last step, convert to plain text. Add [Translation of title] and [Director] as needed.

Television series

Elements of the reference
Executive Producer(s) - last name, initial(s). [Executive Producer(s)]. (Years - it aired, use present if still airing). Title - italicised [TV series]. Production Compan(ies); Broadcaster Name.
In-text citation
(Benioff et al., 2009-2011) OR Benioff et al. (2009-2011)
Reference list
Benioff, D., Casady, G., Doelger, F., Gerardis, V., & Weiss, D. B. [Executive Producers]. (2011–2019). Game of thrones [TV series]. Television 360; Grok! Studio; Generator Entertainment; Bighead Littlehead; Home Box Office.
EndNote reference type
Audiovisual material - as last step, convert to plain text. Add [Executive Producers] as needed.

Episode from television series or webisode

Elements of the reference
Episode writer(s) - last name, initial(s). [Writer] & Director - last name, initial(s). [Director]. (Year, Month Day). Title of television series episode (Season ..., Episode ...) [Television series episode]. In Executive producer - initial(s), last name [Executive producer(s)], Television series name - italicised. Production Companies - use ; to separate multiples.
In-text citation
(Writer's last name & Director's last name, Year)
(Rappaport & Dubin, 1983) OR Rappaport and Dubin (1983) found that ....
Reference list
Rappaport, J. [Writer] & Dubin, C. S. [Director]. (1983, January 24). Say no more (Season 11, Episode 12) [Television series episode]. In B. Metcalfe [Executive producer], M*A*S*H. 20th Century Fox Television; CBS.
EndNote reference type
Television episode - as last step, convert to plain text. Add [Director], [Writer], [Executive producer] as needed.

Indigenous Knowledge

Acknowledging Traditional Knowledge

The following information has come from the APA manual (2019, pp.260-261).

Acknowledging Traditional Knowledge

Traditional Knowledge is referenced based on how the information was recorded.

  • If the information is in a recorded format, follow the examples for how to cite that particular source (e.g. journal article, book, website, etc.). See examples below about how to acknowledge the Indigenous community or Language group, when known, in your text.
  • If this information is in an unrecorded format, follow the examples for Personal Communication, with the addition of the Indigenous community or Language group if known. See examples below.
  • If the author, or person sharing the information is an Elder, they should be referred to as Aunty or Uncle in your narrative.

Stop and think

  • Is the information accurate and appropriate?
  • Is the information something you are allowed to share?
  • Is the Community or Language group acknowledged?
    • If so, you can also acknowledge them in your text.
    • If not, you can acknowledge in your text that this is Indigenous Knowledge with unknown origin.

Recorded sources

Recorded sources

If the information being referenced has been recorded, it should be referenced according to the APA style for that source (e.g. book, article).

However, you can choose to acknowledge the author as an Elder, where applicable, and Community, Nation, or Language group (if known) further in your text.

Example 1
In-text citation (narrative)
Uncle Charles, Bundjalung, highlights the importance of stillness and listening to the lessons from Country (Moran & Moran, 2004. p. 56).
Reference list 
Moran, C.H. & Moran, G. 2004, Talk softly, listen well: Profile of a Bundjalung elder, Charles Moran, Southern Cross University Press.
 
Example 2 (published interview)

Follow the format for the reference type in which the interview was published. When the person being interviewed doesn't appear in the author element in the Reference, integrate their name, title if applicable, and Country, Nation, or Language group into the narrative of the sentence..

In-text citation (narrative)
Aunty Bea Ballangarry, Gumbaynggirr, explains how the removal of judgement found in yarning circles provides opportunities for healing (NSW Mental Health Commission, 2016, January 20).
Reference list
NSW Mental Health Commission. (2016, Jan 20). Guunumba Sit Down Circles with Aunty Bea Ballangarry - Coffs Harbour, NSW [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xgs9AqRa3n4

Non recorded sources

Not recorded sources (personal communication or interview)

If the information you are citing has not been recorded in a way that it can be recovered by a reader it should be cited as personal communication. This includes email, text message, online chat, direct message, personal interview, telephone conversation, live speech, unrecorded classroom lecture, memo, or letter, etc. 

  • Include the initial/s and surname of the communicator, and as exact a date as possible, in the citation
  • Include the Country, Nation, or Language Group, if known
  • Do not use for quotes, or information from participants interviewed as part of personal original research
  • Do not include in the Reference list
Personal communication example
In-text citation
(G. Hickling, Bundjalung, personal communication, August 6, 2020) OR Aunty Gwen Hickling (Bundjalung, personal communication, August 6, 2020)

Further reading

Further reading

Journal articles

Print article & article without a DOI

  • Use this format if the article has no DOI and was retrieved from an academic database.

Elements of the reference
Author(s) – last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of journal article. Journal Name – italicisedVolume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s).
In-text citation
(Paterson & Thorne, 2003) OR Paterson and Thorne (2003) have found that ....
Reference list 
Paterson, B. L., & Thorne, S. (2003). Enhancing the evaluation of nursing care effectiveness. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 35(3), 26-38.
Endnote reference type
Journal article
  • If the article is from an academic database, and has no DOI, reference the article using the print format.
  • See the APA Official When to include Database information to understand what is an academic database.
  • If the article is from a website and has no DOI - use the URL, as long as it is a working URL (if the URL is no longer working, you cannot include the reference, as readers cannot retrieve the work).
  • See also APA Official When to include DOIs and URLs

One author

Elements of the reference
Author(s) – last name, initial(s). (Year). Title of journal article. Journal Name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). DOI address OR URL (if no DOI available)
In-text citation
(Gray, 2009) OR Gray (2009) thought that….
Reference list 
Gray, B. (2009). The emotional labour of nursing - Defining and managing emotions in nursing work. Nurse Education Today, 29(2), 168-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2008.08.003
Endnote reference type
Journal article (print) OR Electronic article

Two authors

Elements of the reference
Author(s) – last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of journal article. Journal Name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). DOI address OR URL (if no DOI available)
In-text citation
(Richards & Borglin, 2019) OR Richards and Borglin (2019) mentioned that ....
Reference list 
Richards, D. A., & Borglin, G. (2019). “Shitty nursing” – The new normal? International Journal of Nursing Studies, 91(1), 148-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2018.12.018
Endnote reference type
Journal article OR Electronic article

Three to twenty authors

Elements of the reference
Author(s) – last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of journal article. Journal Name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). DOI address OR URL (if no DOI available)
In-text citation
(Pal et al., 2013) OR Pal et al. (2013) stated that ....
Reference list 
Pal, R., Megharaj, M., Kirkbride, K. P., & Naidu, R. (2013). Illicit drugs and the environment - A review. The Science of the Total Environment, 463-464, 1079-1092. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.05.086
Endnote reference type
Journal article OR Electronic article

21 authors or more

Elements of the reference
Author(s) – last name, initial(s) for first 19 . . . Last author last name, initial(s). (Year). Title of journal article. Journal Name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). DOI address OR URL (if available)
In-text citation
  • Use only the first author’s last name followed by “et al.”, for every use of the reference.
(Adlhoch et al., 2019) OR Adlhoch et al. (2019) have said that ....
Reference list 
  • List all authors up to 19 names.
  • For 21 or more authors, include the first 19, then an ellipsis - ... - followed by the last author's name.
Adlhoch, C., Mandakova, Z., Ethelberg, S., Epstein, J., Rimhanen-Finne, R., Figoni, J., Baylis, S. A., Faber, M., Mellou, K., Murphy, N., O'Gorman, J., Tosti, M. E., Ciccaglione, A. R., Hofhuis, A., Zaaijer, H., Lange, H., de Sousa, R., Avellon, A., Sundqvist, L., … Ijaz, S. (2019). Standardising surveillance of hepatitis E virus infection in the EU/EEA: A review of national practices and suggestions for the way forward. Journal of Clinical Virology, 120, 63-67. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2019.09.005
Endnote reference type
Journal article OR Electronic article

No author

Elements of the reference
Title of article. (Year). Title of journal - italicised, Volume - italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). DOI OR URL (if no DOI available)
In-text citation
  • Use the first words of the article title.
  • Use double quotation marks around the article title.
("Vitamin K for Newborns", 2016)
Reference list 
Vitamin K for newborns. (2016). Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, 61(5), 675-676. http://doi.org/10.1111/jmwh.12550
Endnote reference type
Journal article OR Electronic article

Advance online publication

Elements of the reference
Author(s) – last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of journal article. Journal Name – italicised. Advance online publication. DOI address OR URL (if no DOI available)
In-text citation
(Allan, 2010) OR Allan (2010) found that ....
Reference list 
Allan, H. (2010). The perils facing nurse education: A call for leadership for learning. Nurse Education Today. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2010.01.002
Endnote reference type
Journal article OR Electronic article - add Advance online publication to Article Number field

Article in press

Elements of the reference
Author(s) – last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (in press). Title of journal article. Journal Name – italicised. DOI address OR URL (if no DOI available)
In-text citation
(Baldwin & Keefer, in press) OR Baldwin and Keefer (in press) stated that ....
Reference list 
Baldwin, M., & Keefer, L. A. (in press). Being here and now: The benefits of belonging in space and time. Journal of Happiness Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-019-00214-7
Endnote reference type
Journal article OR Electronic article - put “in press” in year field

Article number (instead of page numbers)

Elements of the reference
Author(s) – last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of journal article. Journal Name – italicised, Volume - italicised(Issue number), Article article number. DOI address OR URL (if no DOI available)
In-text citation
(de Boer et al., 2014) OR de Boer et al. (2014) stated that ....
Reference list 
de Boer, M. J., Steinhagen, H. E., Versteegen, G. J., Struys, M. M. R. F., & Sanderman, R. (2014). Mindfulness, acceptance and catastrophizing in chronic pain. PloS One, 9(1), Article e87445. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087445
Endnote reference type
Journal article OR Electronic article - add the word Article followed by the article number in the Pages field of the reference eg. Article e87445

Legal sources

Legal sources - General information

  • The APA 7 Publication Manual refers to The Bluebook: A uniform system of citation (20th ed, 2015) for referencing legal publications. However, this does not cover Australian materials. Check with your faculty or discipline for any specific requirements
  • The Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) should be consulted when referencing Australian legislation.
  • SCU has their own AGLC LibGuide for easy reference.
  • Secondary sources: if you do not read the actual Case or Act, but only read about them in another source, only include that source in your reference list.
  • In some cases, the web address of the Case or Act may be very long; in these cases, it is sufficient to give the URL of the database where the document was found.

Act

  • Pinpoint reference: This refers to the particular section or division or other part of the named Act. See AGLC4 p. 69-72 for how the different sections or parts of Acts are abbreviated.
  • Include the jurisdiction the first time the act is cited. Leave it out of subsequent citations.
  • Long title should only be used if there is no short title. See AGLC4 p. 67.
Elements of the reference
Title of the Act Year (Jurisdiction abbreviation), pinpoint reference - if applicable. URL - include if short
In-text citation
(Aged Care Act 1997 (Cth) s. 3) OR Aged Care Act 1997 (Cth) states that ....
Reference list
Aged Care Act 1997 (Cth). http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/aca199757/ (URL considered short so is included)
EndNote reference type
Book
EndNote tips
  • EndNote in text citation: In "Edit & Manage Citations", choose "Exclude Year" in "Formatting". Then in "Suffix" field, type space (Qld) and click on "OK".
  • Add Act title Year to Title field
  • Add Jurisdiction abbreviation to Year field

Bill

  • Include the jurisdiction the first time the bill is cited. Leave it out of subsequent citations.
  • Long title should only be used if there is no short title. See AGLC4 p. 67.
Elements of the reference
Short Title of the Bill Year (Jurisdiction abbreviation) pinpoint reference - if applicable. URL
In-text citation
Healthy Futures Commission Queensland Bill 2017 (Qld) s. 23 OR As found in the Healthy Futures Commission Queensland Bill (2017, s. 23) ...
Reference list
Healthy Futures Commission Queensland Bill 2017 (Qld) s. 23. https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/view/pdf/bill.first/bill-2017-007
Environmental Legislation Amendment Bill 2013 (Cth). http://classic.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/bill_em/elab2013361/memo_ 0.html
EndNote reference type
Web page
EndNote tips
  • Endnote in-text citation: In "Edit & Manage Citations", add comma space s. 23 in "Suffix" box. Convert to Plain Text as last step. Edit in-text reference to remove quotation marks and add bracket around jurisdiction.
  • Add jurisdiction abbreviation to "Year" field
  • Add section to "Edition" field

Cases - reported, organised by volume

  • Round brackets are used when the report series is organised by volume numbers.
  • Include the year the first time the case is cited. Leave it out of subsequent citations.
Elements of the reference
Case name - italicised (Year). Volume Law Report Abbreviation Starting Page Number. URL
In-text citation
(Montevento Holdings Pty Ltd v Scaffidi, 2012) OR As found in Montevento Holdings Pty Ltd v Scaffidi (2012)...
Reference list
Montevento Holdings Pty Ltd v Scaffidi (2012). 246 CLR 325. https://www-westlaw-com-au.ezproxy.scu.edu.au/
EndNote reference type
Webpage - add Volume, Law Report Abbreviation, Starting Page Number to Publisher field

Cases - reported, organised by year

  • Square brackets are used when the reports are organised by year.
  • Include the year the first time the case is cited. Leave it out of subsequent citations.
Elements of the reference
Case name - italicised [Year] Volume Law Report Abbreviation Starting Page Number. URL
In-text citation
(Nothdurft & Anor v QGC Pty Limited & Ors, 2017) OR As found in Nothdurft & Anor v QGC Pty Limited & Ors (2017)....
Reference list
Nothdurft & Anor v QGC Pty Limited & Ors [2017] QLC 41. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/qld/QLC/2017/41.pdf
EndNote reference type
Web page
EndNote tips
  • Add Volume, Law Report Abbreviation, Starting Page Number to Publisher field
  • When document finalised, convert to plain text and change Year brackets to square [ ]

Cases - unreported with neutral citation

  • Unreported cases have not been published in a law report series.

Elements of the reference
Case name - italicised [Year] Court abbreviation Decision number. URL
In-text citation

In the case of Kozik v Redland City Council (2021), the judgment ...

Reference list

Kozik v Redland City Council [2021] QSC 233. https://www.queenslandjudgments.com.au/caselaw/qsc/2021/233

EndNote reference type
Web page
EndNote tips
  • Add Court Abbreviation, Decision number to Publisher field
  • When document finalised, convert to plain text and change Year brackets to square [ ]

Parliamentary debates (Hansard)

Elements of the reference
Jurisdiction. Parliamentary debates. Chamber. Day Month Year. Volume. URL
In-text citation
(Commonwealth, 2010)
Reference list
Commonwealth. Parliamentary debates. Senate. 2 February 2010. 1. http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/chamber/hansards/2010-02-02/toc_pdf/7347-8.pdf;fileType=application%2Fpdf#search=%222010s%202010%22
EndNote reference type
Unpublished work
EndNote tips
  • Endnote in-text citation: Go to "Edit and Management Citations" in Word and add , Year to "Suffix" text box
  • Add Chamber to "Department" field
  • Add Day Month Year to "Date" field
  • Add Volume number to "Place Published" field

Treaties and international conventions

Elements of the reference
Name of Treaty or Convention, signing or approval date, URL
In-text citation
(United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989)
Reference list
United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, November 20, 1989, https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/crc.aspx
EndNote reference type
Web page

Report - Coroner

Elements of the reference
Group author or Individual author(s) - last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of report - italicised (Report number - if available)Publisher - include if different to authorURL
In-text citation
The inquest found that ... (Queensland Courts, 2011)
Reference list
Queensland Courts. (2011). Inquest into the death of Ross Philip Schumacher (2006/16). https://www.courts.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/110259/Schumacher-findings.pdf
EndNote reference type
Report

Australian jurisdiction abbreviations

Jurisdiction Abbreviation
Commonwealth Cth
Australian Capital Territory ACT
New South Wales NSW
Northern Territory NT
Queensland Qld
South Australia SA
Tasmania Tas
Victoria Vic
Western Australia WA

Source: (Melbourne University Law Review Association & Melbourne Journal of International Law, 2010, p. 65).

Newspapers & magazines

Newspaper article

Elements of the reference
Author(s) – last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of article. Newspaper Title – italicised, Page number(s) - if available. URL or DOI address - if available
In-text citation
  • Month Day not included in in-text reference
(Danckert, 2021) OR Danckert (2021) argued that ....
Reference list 
Danckert, S. (2021, September 15). Australian bitcoin mogul agrees to US extradition over BitMEX scandal. The Sydney Morning Heraldhttps://www.smh.com.au/business/markets/australian-bitcoin-mogul-agrees-to-us-extradition-20210915-p58rtn.html
Endnote reference type
Newspaper article

Newspaper article, no author

Elements of the reference
Title of article. (Year, Month Day). Newspaper Title – italicised, Page number(s) - if available. URL or DOI address - if available
In-text citation
  • Month Day not included in in-text reference
("Social media and young people", 2011)
Reference list 
Social media and young people. (2011, May 15). The Courier Mail, 22.
Endnote reference type
Newspaper article

Online news websites

Elements of the reference
Author(s) – last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple author. (Year, Month Day - if available). Title of article - italicised. Name of News Website. URL
In-text citation
  • Month Day not included in in-text reference
(McGhee & Burt, 2019) OR McGhee and Burt (2019) argued that ....
Reference list 
McGhee, R. & Burt, J. (2019, November 22). Bushfire crisis costing Queensland and northern NSW millions. ABC News. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-11-22/queensland-bushfire-crisis-nsw-fires-cost-insurance-damage-bill/11725920
Endnote reference type
Newspaper article

Press (media) release - online

Elements of the reference
Group author or Individual author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Title - in italics [Press release]. URL
In-text citation
(Office of Fair Trading, 2018) OR According to the Office of Fair Trading (2018) ...
Reference list
Office of Fair Trading. (2018, August 17). Community groups key to seniors staying engaged [Press release]. https://www.qld.gov.au/law/laws-regulated-industries-and-accountability/queensland-laws-and-regulations/fair-trading-services-programs-and-resources/fair-trading-latest-news/media-statements/community-groups-key-to-seniors-staying-engaged
EndNote reference type
Press release

Newsletter

Newsletter

Elements of the reference
Group author or Individual author(s) - last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Last update or copyright date; if not known, put n.d.). Article title. Newsletter Title - italicised, number [if available]. URL of specific document
In-text citation
(Gordon, 2010) OR Gordon (2010) states ...
Reference list
Gordon, R. (2010). The passage of trauma through life. ACCSA Aware, 24. https://www.aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs/newsletter/n24.html
Reference list example with no author
Southern Cross University: First regional training in osteopathy. (2009, October). Discover SCUhttps://discover.scu.edu.au/2009/issue10/index.php/9/
Endnote reference type
Newspaper Article - if there is no author enter the name of the Newsletter in the Reporter field as well as the Newspaper field.

Magazine article

Elements of the reference
Author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year, Month Day - if available). Article title. Magazine Name - italicised, volume - italicised(Issue - if available), Page(s) - if available. DOI or URL - if available
In-text citation
  • Month Day not included in in-text citation.
(Flora, 2017) OR Flora (2017) has found that ....
Reference list 
Flora, C. (2017, September 5). The hardest word. Psychology Today, 50(5). https://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/201709/the-hardest-word?collection=1105674

If any elements eg. page numbers are missing, leave them out.

Endnote reference type
Magazine article

Personal communication & Interviews

Using personal communications

  • These can include:
  • personal interviews
  • emails
  • letters
  • memos
  • phone conversations
  • text messages
  • confidential documents
  • personal communications are NOT included in the reference list. They are only added as an in-text citation.

Personal communication

  • Not included in the reference list 
In-text citation
Person - initial(s). last name (personal communication, Month Day, Year)
J. T. Lewis (personal communication, May 14, 2018) OR (K. Taylor, personal communication, March 17, 2019)

Referencing interviews

  • If it is a published interview, use the reference type in which you found the interview eg. online video, newspaper article
  • For an interview you conduct, use the personal communication reference type format.

Interview with participant(s), as part of your own research

  • Not included in reference list
In-text citation
  • Do not cite individually, because this could compromise confidentiality.
Quote anonymously, for example, “Participant A said”.

Reports & government documents

Abbreviating groups as authors

  • Group authors can be an organisation, professional association, company, government department
  • Include the full name of the group the first time it is used. The abbreviation is included in square brackets.
  • If the abbreviation is well known, it can be included for subsequent uses.

In-text Example:

United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund ([UNICEF], 2018)
(United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund [UNICEF], 2018)
  • The full group name should be used in the reference list.

Report - group author

  • When a government agency, department, or branch is the (group) author, use the most specific agency as the author, if more than one layer of government agency is displayed.

Elements of the reference
Group author(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of report - italicised  (Report number - if available). Publisher - include if different to author. URL
In-text citation
(World Health Organization, 2014) OR The World Health Organization (2014) presents ...
Reference list
World Health Organization. (2014). Comprehensive implementation plan on maternal, infant and young child nutrition. https://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/CIP_document/en/
EndNote reference type
Report

Report - individual author

  • Check the title or cover page for the author; if a person is named on the title page, use them as the author. If applicable, include the name of the group as part of the source element.
Elements of the reference
Author(s) - last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of report - italicised  (Report number - if available). Publisher - include if different to author. URL
In-text citation
(Curnock & Marshall, 2019) OR Curnock and Marshall (2019) show that ...
Reference list
Curnock, M., & Marshall, N. (2019). Changes in the state of Great Barrier Reef tourism from 2013 to 2017. CSIRO. https://doi.org/10.25919/5d029d3964301
EndNote reference type
Report

Report - print

  • The  author and publisher must be recorded as they appeared when the document was published.
Elements of the reference
Group author(s) or Individual author(s) - last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of report - italicised  (Report number - if available). Publisher - include if different to author.
In-text citations
(Department of Finance and Administration, 2006) OR The Department of Finance and Administration (2006) indicates ...
(Shannon et al., 2003) OR According to Shannon et al. (2003) ...
Reference list

Government department as author and publisher

Department of Finance and Administration. (2006). Delivering Australian Government services: Managing multiple channels: A guide for the strategic assessment and development of service delivery channels.
Individuals as authors

[Note this publication has 6 authors: treat as per a book with multiple authors.]

Shannon, C., Wakerman, J., Hill, P., Barnes, T., Griew, R., & Ritchie, A. (2003). Achievements in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health: Summary report. Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal and Tropical Health.
EndNote reference type
Report

Technical report - print or online

Elements of the reference
Group author or Individual author(s) - last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of report - italicised  (Report number - if available). Publisher - include if different to author. URL - if available
In-text citations
(Murray-Darling Basin Authority, 2005) OR According to the Murray-Darling Basin Authority (2005) ...
(Queensland Health, 2014) OR Queensland Health (2014) mentions ...
Reference list

Print example

Murray-Darling Basin Authority. (2005). Lower Darling reach report (MDBA No. 5).

Online example

Queensland Health. (2014). Lyssavirus in bats prompts reminder not to touch the animal (QH No. 235). http://www.health.qld.gov.au/news/stories/140313-lyssavirus.asp
EndNote reference type
Report

Industry or corporate report

Elements of the reference
Group author or Individual author(s) - last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of report - italicised (Report number - if available)Publisher - include if different to authorURL
In-text citation
(The Coca-Cola Company, 2017) OR The Coca-Cola Company (2017) has found that ....
Reference list
The Coca-Cola Company. (2017). 2016 sustainability report. http://www.coca-colacompany.com/content/dam/journey/us/en/private/fileassets/pdf/2017/2016-sustainability/2016-Sustainability-Report-The-Coca-Cola-Company.pdf
EndNote reference type
Report

Report - Coroner

Elements of the reference
Group author or Individual author(s) - last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of report - italicised (Report number - if available)Publisher - include if different to authorURL
In-text citation
The inquest found that ... (Queensland Courts, 2011)
Reference list
Queensland Courts. (2011). Inquest into the death of Ross Philip Schumacher (2006/16). https://www.courts.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/110259/Schumacher-findings.pdf
EndNote reference type
Report

Brochure/pamphlet

Treat brochures, pamphlets, fact sheets etc. like report references. Indicate the type of publication in square brackets after the title, unless the publication type is included in the title. Do not add the Publisher if it is the same as the author.

Elements of the reference
Group author or Individual author(s) - last name, Initial(s). (Year). Title of brochure - italicised  [Type of publication, e.g. Brochure or Pamphlet]. Publisher - include if different to author. URL - if available
In-text citation
(My Aged Care Services, 2019) OR ... as indicated by My Aged Care Services (2019).
(Southern Cross University, 2008) OR Southern Cross University (2008) provides ...
Reference list
My Aged Care Services. (2019). Your pathway to accessing a home care package [Brochure]. Australian Government. https://www.myagedcare.gov.au/sites/default/files/2019-07/your-pathway-to-accessing-a-home-care-package.pdf
Southern Cross University. (2008). Copyright and you: A guide for staff [Brochure].
EndNote reference type
Report

Social media & software/mobile apps

Referencing social media

  • Do not change or correct nonstandard spelling and capitalisation.
  • Include any links or hashtags.
  • If emojis are used, replicate them where possible or include its name in square brackets. For example, [winking face].

Post on Facebook or similar eg. Tumblr

Elements of the reference
Group author or Individual author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Content or caption of the post - up to the first 20 words - italicised [Image attached - if needed] [Content form eg. Video, Status update, Infographic]. Social media service eg. Facebook. URL - short URL can be used
In-text citation
(Southern Cross University, 2021) OR Southern Cross University (2021) found that....
Reference list
Southern Cross University. (2021, September 14). Southern Cross lecturer and researcher Dr Benjamin Mos has been fishing out amazing research at the National Marine Science Centre [Status update].Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/southerncrossuniversity 
EndNote reference type
Social media

Facebook page

Elements of the reference
Group author  or Individual author(s) – last name, initial(s) OR group name. (Year). Title of page - italicised (eg. Home, Photos) [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL
In-text citation
(Southern Cross University Library, n.d.) OR Southern Cross University Library (n.d.) mentioned that....
Reference list
Southern Cross University Library. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Retrieved September 15, 2021, from https://www.facebook.com/SouthernCrossUniLibrary
EndNote reference type
Social media

Tweet

Elements of the reference
Group author or Individual author(s) - last name, initial(s) [Twitter Name]. (Year, Month Day). Content or caption of the post – up to the first 20 words - italicised [image attached - if needed] [Tweet]. Twitter. URL
In-text citation
(SCU Library, 2021) OR SCU Library (2021) noted that...
Reference list
SCU Library [@SCULibrary]. (2021, September 6). The library has identified 21 OER texts adopted across @SCUonline faculties since 2020 [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/SCULibrary/status/1434657528441294848 
EndNote reference type
Social media - add Image Attached to Original Post field.

Instagram photograph

Elements of the reference
Group author or Individual author(s) - last name, initial(s) - use & to combine authors [Instagram name]. (Year, Month Day). Title or content up to first 20 words - italicised [Photograph(s)]. Instagram. URL
In-text citation
(Southern Cross Uni Library, 2021) OR Southern Cross Uni Library (2021) showed that...
Reference list
Southern Cross Uni Library [sculibrary]. (2021, September 13). Visit the Library's homepage to access a range of library services, including our catalogue, help via chat, bookings and referencing guides. [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/CTwCyprv6-o/
EndNote reference type
Social media

Instagram video

Elements of the reference
Group author or Individual author(s) - last name, initial(s) - use & to combine authors [Instagram name]. (Year, Month Day). Title or content up to first 20 words - italicised [Video]. Instagram. URL
In-text citation
(Southern Cross Uni Library, 2021) OR Southern Cross Uni Library (2021) showed that...
Reference list
Southern Cross Uni Library [sculibrary]. (2021, Jue 28). Welcome to Session Two [Video]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/tv/CQpvn7oltYy/?hl=en
EndNote reference type
Social media
EndNote tips
  • Add title to Post text field
  • Add Month Day to Post Date field
  • Add username to Handle field

Comment on a post or article

Elements of the reference
Author - last name, initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of post comment or up to first 20 words [Comment on the article "Article or post title"]. Blog title - italicised. URL
In-text citation
(Hordofa, 2019) OR Hordofa (2019)
Reference list
  • Use name of person making comment as author
  • Include title of comment or up to first 20 words of comment as title
  • Shortened web address can be used
Hordofa, A. B. (2019, October 9). I am very interested to read it and congratulates the author for the finding! [Comment on the post "In the eye of the beholder: Why you should care about color blindness when designing scientific images"]. Elsevier Researcher Academy. https://www.elsevier.com/connect/authors-update/in-the-eye-of-the-beholder
EndNote reference type
Blog

When do I reference software or apps?

  • Software or apps that are common (to your field or audience) do not need to have in-text citations and reference list entries. Just include the full software or app name and the version in brackets (if relevant). For example, Covidence (Version 2).
  • If they have limited access or distribution, the in-text citation and reference list entries are required. Please see the examples below.
  • If you have quoted or paraphrased from software or an app, they also need to use an in-text citation and include a reference list entry.
  • If you used a website to create something like a survey, include the website name and address in text. For example - We used SurveyMonkey (https://www.surveymonkey.com) to create our survey. An in-text citation and including a reference list entry isn't required.

Software

Elements of the reference
Group author or Individual author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year). Title of software - italicised (Version ver. number) [Computer software]. Publisher. URL
In-text citation
(Psychology Software Tools, 2021) OR Psychology Software Tools (2021) found that ....
Reference list
Psychology Software Tools. (2021). E-Prime (Version 3.0) [Computer software]. Psychology Software Tools. https://pstnet.com/products/e-prime/
EndNote reference type
Computer program

Mobile apps

Elements of the reference
Group author or Individual author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year). Title of software - italicised (Version ver. number) [Mobile app]. Apple Store OR Google Play. URL
In-text citation
(Psycnet Software, 2020) OR Psycnet Software (2020) found that ....
Reference list
Psycnet Software. (2020). The psychology blog (Version 2.0) [Mobile app]. Google Play. https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.newandromo.dev7998.app965243 
EndNote reference type
Computer program

Specialised health sources

Standards for practice, codes of conduct

Elements of the reference
Group Author. (Year). Document title: Subtitle. URL of document
In-text citation - same author in same year
(Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, 2016a) OR According to the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (2016a) ...
(Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, 2016b, p. 4) OR  ... as noted by the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia ( 2016b, p. 4).
In-text citation - group author, with acronym
First citation: (Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency [AHPRA], 2019) OR The Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA, 2019) ...
Subsequent citation: (AHPRA, 2019) OR AHPRA (2019) indicates ...
Reference list - same author in same year
Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2016a). Enrolled nurse standards for practice. https://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-GuidelinesStatements/Professional-standards.aspx
Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2016b). Registered nurse standards for practice. https://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-GuidelinesStatements/Professional-standards.aspx

[Note: for documents with the same group author and year, list alphabetically by title in the reference list, and add the suffix a, b, etc after the year.]

Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency. (2019). Social media: How to meet your obligations under the National Law. https://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/CodesGuidelines-Statements/Codes-Guidelines/Social-media-guidance.aspx
EndNote reference type
Report

Drugs Handbook entry

Elements of the reference
Title of entry. (Year - use n.d. if no year available). In Title of work - italicised. (Retrieved month day, year, from - if no year available) URL of the homepage of the work

[Note: for drug information from non-library sources, include [Drug information] after the article title]

In-text citation - examples
("Amoxicillin", 2022)
("Paracetemol", 2021)
Reference list - examples
Amoxicillin. (2022). In Australian medicines handbookhttps://amhonline.amh.net.au
Paracetamol. (2021). In Australian injectable drugs handbook (8th ed.). https://www.shpa.org.au/AIDH_8th_edition 
EndNote reference type
Electronic book section - if required, convert to plain text, and add retrieval date

DSM-5

Elements of the reference - Manual as a whole
Group Author. (Year). Title of book (edition). (Publisher not required if same as author) DOI in the format https://doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx)
Elements of the reference - section of the Manual
Group Author. (Year). Title of section. In Title of book (edition). DOI in the format https://doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx)
In-text citation
(American Psychiatric Association, 2013) OR According to the American Psychiatric Association (2013) ...
Reference list - Manual as a whole
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596
Reference list - section of the Manual
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Dissociative disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi-org.ezproxy.scu.edu.au/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm08
EndNote reference type
Electronic book; Electronic book section

Rehabilitation Reference Center

Drugs Information

Elements of the reference
Author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year). Chapter (drug) title. Database title. (Retrieved month day, year, from - if no year available) URL of the database homepage
In-text citation; in-text citation with direct quote
(McEvoy, 2019) OR McEvoy (2019) describes...
(McEvoy, 2019, Drug Interactions) OR McEvoy (2019, Drug Interactions) lists ....
Reference list
McEvoy, G. K. (2019). Abatacept. Rehabilitation Reference Centerhttps://health.ebsco.com/products/rehabilitation-reference-center
EndNote reference type
Journal article

Clinical Review

Elements of the reference
Author(s) -  last name, initial(s). (Year). Article title [Clinical review]. Database title, pages (use page range on PDF). URL of the database homepage
In-text citation
(Cable & Wiemer, 2019) OR Cable and Wiemer (2019) indicate ...
Reference list
Cable, A., & Wiemer, H. (2019). Augmentative and alternative communication: Aphasia [Clinical review]. Rehabilitation Reference Center, 1-15. https://health.ebsco.com/products/rehabilitation-reference-center
EndNote reference type
Journal article - convert to plain text, and add [Clinical review] after the article title

Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI)

Best Practice Information Sheet

Elements of the reference
Author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year). Title of article [Best practice information sheet]. Source, volume(issue), pages (use page range of PDF). URL of the database homepage
In-text citation
(Marin, 2020) OR According to Marin (2020) ...
Reference list
Marin, T. (2020). Effect of educational and support interventions on long-term breastfeeding rates in primiparous women [Best practice information sheet]. Joanna Briggs Institute EBP Database, 22(1), 1-5. http://www.joannabriggs.org
EndNote reference type
Journal article - convert to plain text, and add [Best practice information sheet] after the article title

 

Evidence Summary

Elements of the reference 

Author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year). Title of article [Evidence summary]. Source, pages (use page range of PDF). URL of the database homepage
In-text citation
(Lizarondo, 2021) OR Lizarondo (2021) suggests ...
 Reference list
Lizarondo, L. (2021). Tourette Syndrome (children and adults): Dietary interventions [Evidence summary]. Joanna Briggs Institute EBP Database, 1-2. http://www.joannabriggs.org
EndNote reference type
Journal article - convert to plain text and add [Evidence summary] after the article title

Cochrane Library - Systematic Review

Elements of the reference
Author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year). Titles of article. Database title. DOI in the format https://doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx
In-text citation
(Singh et al., 2012) OR Singh et al. (2012) describe ...
 Reference list
Singh, J., Kour, K., & Jayaram Mahesh, B. (2012). Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007967.pub2
EndNote reference type
Journal article

Hospital/healthcare protocols

Elements of the reference
Group author or Individual author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year, month). Protocol title (Version/protocol number, if provided). Organisation (if not group author). URL of document
In-text citation - individual author
(Wilkinson et al., 2012) OR As indicated by Wilkinson et al. (2012) ...
Reference list - individual author
Wilkinson, N., Welsh, R., Kendall, E., & Inness, E. (2012, July). Prescription chart: Cyclophosphamide & rituximab regimen for systemic vasculitis (Version 2.0). Oxford University Hospitals. https://www.ouh.nhs.uk/oxparc/professionals/documents/Finaldraft-cyclo__ritux1710123.pdf
In-text citation - group author
(Minnesota Hospital Association, 2012) OR According to the Minnesota Hospital Association (2012) ....
Reference list - group author
Minnesota Hospital Association. (2012, March). Hypoglycemia: Adult management protocol. https://www.mnhospitals.org/Portals/0/Documents/ptsafety/ade/adult-hypoglycemia-management-protocol.pdf
EndNote reference type
Web page

MIDIRS Midwifery Digest - Original or Review Article

Elements of the reference
Author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year). Title of original/review article. Database Title, volume(issue), pages. URL of database homepage
In-text citation - original article
(Buder, 2015) OR Buder (2015) concludes ...
Reference list - original article
Buder, A. (2015). Implementation of delayed cord clamping in the active management of the third stage of labour. MIDIRS Midwifery Digest, 25(2), 211-217. https://www.midirs.org/ 
In-text citation - review article
(Pearson, 2016) OR A further point is made by Pearson (2016) ...
Reference list - review article
Pearson, M. (2016). A physiological approach to the timing of umbilical cord clamping at birth [Review of "A physiological approach to the timing of umbilical cord clamping at birth," by S. B. Hooper, G. R. Polglase, & A. B. te Pas]. MIDIRS Midwifery Digest26(1), 74-75. https://www.midirs.com/
EndNote reference type
Journal article

Test/scale/measurement instrument (Speech Pathology, Psychology)

In-text citation

  • If you just mention the test in your text (i.e. no in-text citation required), ensure you capitalise the title, using title case. Do not italicise.
  • If the test is known by its acronym, introduce it at the first use of the test in your text, unless you are only referring to the test once in your work.

Reference list

  • Provide an entry for the test itself only if there is no manual or other supporting literature to cite. If a manual is available for a test, cite the manual (as per example below).
Elements of the reference - manual (hard copy test)
Group author or Individual author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year). Test Title: Technical manual/Examiner's manual (edition/version)Publisher.
Elements of the reference - online test
Group author or Individual author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year). Test Title (edition/version). URL of homepage of work
In-text citation - manual (hard copy test)
(Bishop, 2003, p. 5) OR According to Bishop (2003, p. 5) ...
Reference list  - manual (hard copy test)
Bishop, D. V. M. (2003). Test for Reception of Grammar: Technical manual (Version 2). Pearson Assessment.
In-text citation - online test
(Project Implicit., n.d., pp. 21-22) OR In Project Implicit (n.d., pp. 21-22) ...
Reference list - online test
Project Implicit. (n.d.). Gender-Science IAT. https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/takeatest.html
EndNote reference type
Book - convert to plain text and add the Version after the title

Osteopathic historical sources

Osteopathic journals

Elements of the reference
Author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Article title: Subtitle. Magazine/Journal Title, page range. URL of magazine/journal home page [if viewed online]

[Note: Some of the historical journal articles do not possess both volume and issue numbers.]

In-text citation
(Booth, 1901) OR Booth (1901) ...
Reference list
Booth, E. R. (1901, June). Advancement in medicine from the drug stand-point. Journal of Osteopathy, 167-169. https://www.atsu.edu/museum-of-osteopathic-medicine/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/JournalofOsteopathy1901June.pdf
EndNote reference type
Journal article

Osteopathic yearbooks (print)

Sections of the American Academy of Osteopathy 52 AAO yearbooks from 1938-1998 DVD can be referenced as chapters in an edited book. 

Elements of the reference
Author(s) (of chapter) - last name, initial(s). (Year). Chapter title. In Editor(s) - initial(s). Last name (Ed. or Eds.), Book title: Subtitle (pp. page range of chapter). Publisher.
In-text citation
(Magoun, 1962) OR Magoun (1962) ...
Reference list
Magoun, H. I. (1962). Headaches of localized vascular origin. In M. W. Barnes (Ed.), 1962 Year book of selected osteopathic papers (pp 121-126). American Academy of Osteopathy.
EndNote reference type
Book section

StatPearls

Elements of the reference
Author(s) (of chapter) - last name, initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Chapter title. In Publication Title. Publisher. URL
In-text citation
(Federico & Krishnamurthy, 2020) OR ... as noted by Federico and Krishnamurthy (2020) .
Reference list
Federico, J. R., & Krishnamurthy, K. (2020, August 28). Albinism. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519018/
EndNote reference type
Electronic book section

Therapeutic Guidelines (formerly eTG Complete)

Elements of the reference
Title of entry. (Year - use n.d. if no year available). In Database Title. URL of database homepage
In-text citation
("Providing palliative care in the community", 2016)

[Note: Double quotation marks are included for the title in in-text reference if title is not italicised in reference list eg. article title, chapter title.]

Reference list
Providing palliative care in the community. (2016). In Therapeutic Guidelines. https://www.tg.org.au/
EndNote reference type
Electronic book section

Streaming videos (e.g. YouTube)

YouTube or other streaming video

  • Author - the person or organisation that uploaded the video (even if they did not create the actual content)
  • Date - provide the specific date on which the video was uploaded.
  • Time stamp - include a time stamp in the in-text citation when quoting directly from an audiovisual work 
Elements of the reference
Group author or Individual author - last name, initial(s) [Username - if available]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video - italicised [Video]. Site name. URL
In-text citation
(O'Brien, 2017) OR O'Brien (2017) demonstrated that ....
In-text citation - direct quote
(Gallagher, 2016, 00:06:17) OR Gallagher (2016, 00:06:17) concluded that ....
Reference list
O’Brien, B. [Brenna O]. (2017, May 5). NVivo 11 training - full video (5/4/17) - updated [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eNo-Qxsp-mk
Example other streaming video
Cutts, S. (2017, November 24). Happiness [Video]. Vimeo. https://vimeo.com/244405542
EndNote reference type
Social media
EndNote tips
  • Add title to Post text field
  • Add Month Day to Post Date field
  • Add username to Handle field
  • Add sitename to Provider field

YouTube or other streaming video - screen name only

Elements of the reference
Username - exactly as posted. (Year, Month Day). Title of video - italicised [Video]. Site name (eg. YouTube). URL
In-text citation
(ssiconamed, 2013) OR ssiconamed (2013) noted that ....
In-text citation - direct quote
(pdhpe.net, 2017, 01:05:20) OR pdhpe.net (2017, 01:05:20) noted that ....
Reference list
ssiconamed. (2013, July 5). Tutorial NVivo [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7AtFisYXo9k
EndNote reference type
Social media
EndNote tips
  • Add title to Post text field
  • Add Month Day to Post Date field
  • Add sitename to Provider field

TED talk

Note: When a TED Talk comes from TED's website, use the name of the speaker as the author.

Elements of the reference
Speaker - last name, initial(s). (Year, Month OR Year, Month Day). Title of the talk - italicised [Video]. TED Conferences. URL
In-text citation
(Giertz, 2018) OR Giertz (2018) shows ...
In-text citation - direct quote
(Lipton, 2018, 00:05:40) OR Lipton (2018, 00:05:40) asked ...
Reference list
Giertz, S. (2018, April). Why you should make useless things [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/simone_giertz_why_you_should_ make_useless_things
EndNote reference type
Social media
EndNote tips
  • Add title to Post text field
  • Add Month Day to Post Date field
  • Add sitename to Provider field

TED talk (from YouTube)

Note: When the TED Talk is on YouTube, list the owner of the YouTube account as the author to aid in retrieval.

When the speaker is not listed as the author, integrate their name into the narrative, e.g. Brown explained that ... (TED, 2012).

Elements of the reference
Name of YouTube account (i.e.TED). (Year, Month OR Year, Month Day). Title of the talk - italicised | Speaker's First name Surname [Video]. YouTube. URL
In-text citation
Brown explained that ... (TED, 2012)
In-text citation - direct quote
Sakaran explained that ... (TED, 2012, 01:02:30)
Reference list
TED. (2012, March 16). Listening to shame | Brene Brown [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.cam/watch?v=psN1DORYYV0
EndNote reference type
Social media
EndNote tips
  • Add title to Post text field
  • Add Month Day to Post Date field
  • Add sitename to Provider field

Webinar, recorded

Note: Use this format only for recorded, retrievable webinars. Cite unrecorded webinars as personal communications.

Elements of the reference
Author - last name, initial(s). (Year). Title of webinar - italicised [Webinar]. Publisher. URL
In-text citation
(Goldberg, 2018) OR Goldberg (2018) demonstrated that ....
Reference list
Goldberg, J. F. (2018). Evaluating adverse drug effects [Webinar]. American Psychiatric Association. https://education.psychiatry.org/Users/ProductDetails.aspx?ActivityID=6172
EndNote reference type
Social media
EndNote tips
  • Add title to Post text field
  • Add Month Day to Post Date field
  • Add publisher to Provider field

Tables

Referencing tables

  • Each table needs to be numbered in the order in which they appear in the document eg. Table 1, Table 2.
  • Always refer to a table by their number. Statements such as “in the table below” or "the table shown on page 78” should not be used.
  • Provide each table with a brief but explanatory title. This should appear below the table number.
  • A table note (caption) should be included the bottom of the table to acknowledge that the table has been reproduced from another source. 
  • If a table is being reproduced for inclusion in a work which is being published, you must seek permission from the copyright holder. This permission must also be included in the table note (caption). The word “Note” is included at the start in italics.
  • "Note" is used in place of in-text reference.
  • Include the full reference in the reference list.
  • Check out some table examples

Copyright statements

  • If the table has been reprinted, include "Reprinted with permission" after copyright statement.
  • If the table has been adapted, include "Adapted with permission" after copyright statement.
Type Statement Example
Copyrighted material Copyright Year by Copyright Holder Name Copyright 2021 by Southern Cross University.
Creative Commons CC relevant licence abbreviation CC BY-SA
Public domain In the public domain In the public domain.

 

Table note (caption) format

Journal Article:

Elements of the table note

Note. From (use if reprinted) or Adapted from “Title of Article,” by Author first name - initial(s). Author - last name and Author first name - initial(s). Author - last name, Year, Title of Journal, Volume(Issue - if available), p. xx. (DOI or URL - if available). Copyright statement.

Example table note 

Note. From "Using a Gratitude Intervention to Enhance Well-Being in Older Adults" by A. Killen and A. Macaskill, 2015, Journal of Happiness Studies, 16(4), p. 955. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-014-9542-3). Copyright 2014 by Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Reprinted with permission.

In-text reference
An in-text reference is not used. The table note is used instead. 
Reference list
Killen, A., & Macaskill, A. (2015). Using a gratitude intervention to enhance well-being in older adults. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16(4), 947–964. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-014-9542-3
EndNote reference type
Journal article
EndNote tips
  • To ensure the in-text reference does not appear, in Word, insert the in-text citation as usual. Highlight the reference, go to "Edit and Management Citations" and in the "Formatting" menu, click on "Show Only in Bibliography" then on "OK".

 

Book:

Elements of the table note

Note. From (for reprinted) Adapted from Title of Book (any edition or volume information, p. xxx), by Author - first name initial(s). Author - last name and Author - first name initial(s). Author - last name, Year, Publisher. (DOI or URL - if available). Copyright statement.

Example table note 

Note. Adapted from Systematic reviews in health care: A practical guide (p. 83), by P. Glaszious, L. Irwig, C. Bain and G. Colditz, 2001, Cambridge University Press. Copyright 2001 by Cambridge University Press. Adapted with permission.

In-text reference
An in-text reference is not used. The table note is used instead.

Reference list

Glaszious, P., Irwig, L., Bain, C., & Colditz, G. (2001). Systematic reviews in health care: A practical guide. Cambridge University Press.
EndNote reference type
Book
EndNote tips
  • To ensure the in-text reference does not appear, in Word, insert the in-text citation as usual. Highlight the reference, go to "Edit and Management Citations" and in the "Formatting" menu, click on "Show Only in Bibliography" then on "OK".

 

Book Chapter:

Elements of the table note

Note. From (or reprint) or Adapted from “Title of Chapter,” by Author first name - initial(s). Author - last name and Author - first name - initial(s). Author - last name, in Editor - first name initial(s). Editor - last name (Ed.), Title of Book (any edition or volume information, p. xxx), Year, Publisher. (DOI or URL - if available). Copyright statement.

Example table note 

Note. From "Evidence About Diagnosis" by J. Doust, in T. Hoffman, S. Bennett and C. Del Mar (Eds), Evidence-Based Practice: Across the Health Professions (p.141), 2010, Elsevier Australia. Copyright 2010 by Elsevier Australia. Reprinted with permission.

In-text reference
An in-text reference is not used. The table note is used instead.
Reference list
Doust, J. (2010). Evidence about diagnosis. In T. Hoffman, S. Bennett, & C. Del Mar (Eds.), Evidence-based practice: Across the health professions (pp. 128-144). Elsevier Australia.
EndNote reference type
Book chapter
EndNote tips
  • To ensure the in-text reference does not appear, in Word, insert the in-text citation as usual. Highlight the reference, go to "Edit and Management Citations" and in the "Formatting" menu, click on "Show Only in Bibliography" then on "OK".

 

Website:

Elements of the table note

Note. From (if reprinted) or Adapted from “Title of Web Document,” by Author - first name initial(s). Author - last name and Author - first name initial(s). Author - last name, Year (URL). Copyright statement. 

Example table note 

Note. From "Health is not the same for everyone" by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2016 (https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-health/australias-health-2016-in-brief/contents/health-is-not-the-same-for-everyone). Copyright 2016 by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Reprinted with permission.

In-text reference
An in-text reference is not used. The table note is used instead.
Reference list
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2016). Health is not the same for everyonehttps://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-health/australias-health-2016-in-brief/contents/health-is-not-the-same-for-everyone
EndNote reference type
Web Page
EndNote tips
  • To ensure the in-text reference does not appear, in Word, insert the in-text citation as usual. Highlight the reference, go to "Edit and Management Citations" and in the "Formatting" menu, click on "Show Only in Bibliography" then on "OK"

Theses & integrated projects

Thesis - from website

Elements of the reference
Author - last name, initial(s). (Year). Title of thesis – italicised [Doctoral dissertation or Master's thesis, Institution]. Archive name. URL
In-text citation
(Gyenes, 2017) OR Gyenes (2017) found that ....
Reference list
Gyenes, T. (2017). Arguing with technology: Teaching and learning argumentative writing in the digital age English classroom [Doctoral dissertation, Southern Cross University]. Southern Cross Research Portal. https://researchportal.scu.edu.au/esploro/outputs/991012821469702368
EndNote reference type
Thesis - add Archive Name to Name of Database field

Thesis - from database

Elements of the reference
Author - last name, initials. (Year). Title of thesis – italicised (Publication No. - if available) [Doctoral dissertation or Master's thesis, Institution]. Database Name. 
In-text citation
(Leigh, 2010) OR Leigh (2010) reported that ....
Reference list
Leigh, J. (2010). Self-determined mindfulness and attachment style in college students (Publication No. 305210119) [Doctoral dissertation, Indiana State University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
EndNote reference type
Thesis - add Publication Number to Document Number field

Thesis - unpublished

  • An unpublished thesis is one which can only be retrieved from the institution's library.

Elements of the reference
Author - last name, initial(s). (Year). Title of thesis – italicised [Unpublished Doctoral dissertation/DBA/Masters thesis]. Name of institution.
In-text citation
(Baker, 2008) OR Baker (2008) found that ....
Reference list
Baker, C. A. (2008). The seduction of loss [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Southern Cross University.
EndNote reference type
Thesis -  add Institution Name to Name of Database field

Integrated project

Unpublished integrated project

  • The integrated projects - Bachelor of Applied Science (Coastal Management) are available in the Lismore Campus Library, call number 333.7 PROJ
Elements of the reference
Author - last name, initial(s). (Year). Integrated project title [Unpublished integrated project]. Name of Institution.
In-text citation
(Steel, 2000) OR Steel (2000)
Reference list
Steel, F. J. (2000). Koala populations in Lismore: Impacts and management [Unpublished integrated project]. Southern Cross University.
EndNote reference type
Unpublished Work

Visual works

Artwork in a museum or on a museum website

  • Use to reference all types of museum artwork (e.g. paintings, sculptures, photographs, prints, drawings and installations). 
  • Describe the medium of format in square brackets after the title. For untitled art, include a description in square brackets in place of a title.
Elements of the reference 
Creator(s) of artwork – last name, initial(s). (Year). Title of artwork - italicised [Medium OR Format]. Name and the Location of the Museum. URL of the artwork if available
In-text citation
(Pollock, 1952) OR Pollock (1952) shows ...
Reference list 
Delacroix, E. (1826-1827). Faust attempt to seduce Marguerite [Lithograph]. The Louvre, Paris, France.
Pollock, J. (1952). Blue poles [Painting]. National Galley of Austraila, Canberra, Australia. https://nga.gov.au/international/catalogue/Detail.cfm?IRN=36334&ViewID=2&GalID=ALL&MnuID=1
Endnote reference type
Artwork

Map

Elements of the reference 
Author - last name, Initial(s). (Year). Title of map [Map]. Site name. URL
In-text citation
(Cable, 2013) OR Cable (2013) points out ...
Reference list 
Cable, D. (2013). The racial dot map [Map]. University of Virginia, Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service. https://demographics.coopcenter.org/Racial-Dot-Map
Google maps example
Google. (n.d.) [Google Maps directions for driving from Lismore to Coffs Harbour, New South Wales]. Retrieved September 21, 2021, from https://www.google.com/maps/dir//lismore+to+coffs+harbour/@-27.4694144,153.0396672,12z

Note: "Because dynamically created maps (e.g. Google Maps) do not have a title, describe the map in square brackets, and include a retrieval date" (APA, 2019, p.347).

Endnote reference type
Map

Websites, webpages

Webpages or websites

Website

When referring to a website in general (ie. the homepage or default webpage that loads when you visit a web address that only contains a domain name), include the name of the website in the text and provide the URL in parentheses. No in-text citation or reference list entry is necessary.

For example

This survey was created using Survey Monkey (https://www.surveymonkey.com/).

Webpage

Only use webpage if no other reference type fits, and the work has no parent or over-reaching publication other than the website itself.

If you cite multiple webpages from a website, create a reference for each. 

Elements of the reference
Group author or Individual author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Date - in the format: Year OR Year, Month OR Year, Month, Day). Title of page - italicised. Website name. (Retrieved Month Day, Year, from - if retrieval date required) URL

[Note: omit the website name if the author and website name are the same.]

  • Do not use the copyright date on the webpage as the publication date for specific content/documents on that site.
  • Only use the copyright date if you can be sure that it applies to the content you are citing.
  • If multiple dates are provided, use the most recent date on which the content was changed (or updated/revised). A review date should not be used, as this implies that the information was not changed. 
  • If no separate date of publication is indicated for the work on a webpage, treat the work as having no date.

Webpage within website - individual author

Elements of the reference
Author(s) of page – last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year, Month Day - if available). Title of page - italicised. Website Name. URL
In-text citation

(Rackham, 2021) OR Rackham (2021) mentioned that ....

Reference list
  • Note: If there is no date or no month, these can be left out eg. Rackham, M. (2021). OR Rackham, M. (2021, September).
Rackham, M. (2021, September 3). Barbara Hanrahan: An Australian feminist artist you need to know. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/barbara-hanrahan-an-australian-feminist-artist-you-need-to-know-166664
Endnote reference type
Web Page - add Month Day to Last Update Date field if needed.

Webpage within website - group author

Elements of the reference
Group author. (Year, Month Day - if available). Title of page - italicised. Website Name - if needed. URL

[Note: omit the website name if the author and website name are the same.]

In-text citation

(Mayo Clinic, 2020) OR Mayo Clinic (2020) stated that ....

Reference list
  • Note: If there is no date or no month, these can be left out eg. Mayo Clinic. (2020) OR Mayo Clinic. (2020, November).
Mayo Clinic. (2020, November 17). Hamstring injury. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hamstring-injury/symptoms-causes/syc-20372985
Endnote reference type
Web Page - add Month Day to Last Update Date field if needed.

Webpage within website - no date

Elements of the reference
Group author or Individual author(s) - last name, initial(s). (n.d.). Title of page - italicised. Website Name - if needed. URL

[Note: omit the website name if the author and website name are the same.]

In-text citation
(Royal Institute of British Architects, n.d.) OR According to the Royal Institute of British Architects (n.d.) ...
Reference list 
Royal Institute of British Architects. (n.d.). Shaping the future: Careers in architecture. http://ww.careersinarchitecture.net/
Endnote reference type
Web Page

Webpage with a retrieval date

  • If the information on the page/site is likely or designed to change over time (e.g. dictionary entry, Twitter profile, Facebook page), and there is no archived version available, provide a retrieval date.
Elements of the reference
Group author or Individual author(s) - last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year, Month Day - if available). Title of page - italicised. Other relevant elements depending on the reference type. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL
In-text citation
(U.S. Census Bureau, n.d.)
Reference list
U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population clock. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved July 3, 2019, from https://www.census.gov/popclock/
Endnote reference type
Web Page

Blog post

Elements of the reference
Author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of post. Blog Name - italicised. URL
In-text citation
(Conaboy, 2021) OR Conaboy (2021) stated that ....
Reference list
Conaboy, K. (2021, September 11). Miranda Kerr has always wanted a bathtub in her bedroom. Gawker. https://www.gawker.com/celebrity/miranda-kerr-has-always-wanted-a-bathtub-in-her-bedroom
Endnote reference type
Blog

Wikipedia

Elements of the reference
Title of entry. (Year, Month Date or n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved Month Date, Year - if needed, URL
In-text citation
("Psychology", 2021) OR "Psychology" (2021)
Reference list
  • Use archived version (click on "View History" to check). Include listed date in (Year, Month Date) section.

  • If no archived version available, use n.d. in (Year) and include Retrieved information (as below)

Archived Version Available:

Psychology. (2021, September 6). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology

No Archived Version:

Psychology. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved March 20, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology
Endnote reference type

Archived Version:

Electronic book section

No Archived Version:

Dictionary