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Systematic Reviews

EndNote - learning the basics

Please refer to the EndNote LibGuide for an introduction:

Detailed instructions for using EndNote for Systematic Reviews can be found here:

Importing, managing and coding references

Exporting references from your databases searches is usually straightforward, and generally involves the following steps:

  1. Search a database
  2. Mark the records you want to save
  3. Select the database's direct export option (.ris format is always EndNote compatible)
  4. Select the EndNote Library you wish to export the records to

See examples of exporting from various databases on the EndNote LIbGuide: https://libguides.scu.edu.au/endnote/databases 

EndNote comes with the capability to automatically find and attach the full text of journal articles.

You will need to follow the setup instructions for enabling Find Full Text.

  • The Find Full Text commands will only work for Southern Cross University subscribed full text resources, as well as some open access resources. Due to the nature of some databases and authentication issues, not all University subscribed resources will be retrieved.
     
  • In addition, records which include a DOI within the DOI field will retrieve more full text. When downloading from databases ensure you select to include the DOI in downloaded records.
     
  • Enabling EndNote Web may improve the success rate of Find Full Text. To enable EndNote Web (and create an EndNote Web account if you have not already done so), from within EndNote, click Edit > Preferences. Select EndNote Web then Activate and follow the steps.

 

 

Use EndNote's Change/Move/Copy Fields command to automatically add text (such as the name of the database, saved search name, or date searched) to your imported records.

This is very handy for keeping track of where records came from, and assists you if you need to return to the database for any reason later on.

Use EndNote's Groups and Group Sets command to quickly identify databases searched, then create individual groups to house results from each of the databases.

To create a Group Set (eg. the "Databases" set in the image below):

Select Groups > Create Group Set. Name the group set then press <Enter>.

Next, create each group to include in the set:

  • Select Groups > Create Group. Name the group then press <Enter>.
  • Continue to create groups.

To add references to groups:

  • Highlight the reference in the Library Window and drag the reference to the specific group.

 

Once all databases have been searched, records downloaded into EndNote, and a note made of the number of results retrieved from each database, you must identify and delete duplicate records.

To ensure that all duplicate records are identified and deleted:

  •  Run the EndNote Find Duplicates command: via References > Find Duplicates.

  • By default EndNote will identify a record as a duplicate if it includes the same author/s, year of publication and title as another record within the Library. You can review duplicates found one at a time, as shown below, or click Skip to display all duplicates in one screen, which can then be deleted in one click.

    

After running the EndNote Find Duplicates command it is essential that you follow up with a manual check of your  Library for duplicates.

Re-sort your Library Window alphabetically by title (click the Title column heading), then visually scan, identify and delete duplicated records.

The following EndNote functionality may be used to assist systematic reviewers to code references, for example for inclusion or exclusion.

Use EndNote's Groups and Group Sets Command

To create a Group Set (eg. the "Excluded" set in the image below):

  • Select Groups > Create Group Set. Name the group set then press <Enter>.

Next, create each group to include in the set:

  • Select Groups > Create Group. Name the group then press <Enter>.
  • Continue to create groups.

To add references to groups:

  • Highlight the reference in the Library Window and drag the reference to the specific group.

Create customised fields for storing specific information about records:

Select Edit > Preferences > Reference Types from the left side of the Preferences window.
Select the Reference Type (eg. Journal Article) to adjust, then Modify Reference Types.  
The template for each reference may be selected from the drop down list at the top of the Modify Reference Types window.
Within the Journal Article template, scroll down to one of the Custom fields, then type your inclusion/exclusion criteria in the cell to the immediate right.
This new field must be included within each of the Reference Type templates - select Apply to All Reference Types to apply across all templates, then click OK.

Adjusting your EndNote Library window to display customised fields

To change the column headings:

  • Select Edit > Preferences, then Display fields from the left side of the Preferences window. Select the fields to display from the 10 drop-down lists, then click OK.
  • If you want to change the name of a column from the default EndNote field name, type the required text in the Heading text box.

Other issues to consider

Handling Extraneous Text Included with Downloaded Records

Records downloaded from some databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and others) often import information into EndNote's "Type of Work/Article" field. This information usually relates to a research grant or study design, and some EndNote Output Styles (including Vancouver and APA) are formatted to include this additional information in reference list entries, resulting in references such as below:

Biro MA, Waldenstrom U, Pannifex JH. Team midwifery care in a tertiary level obstetric service: A randomized controlled trial.  Birth. [Clinical Trial  Comparative Study Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. 2000;27(3):168-73.

References should appear as:

Biró, M. A., Waldenström, U., & Pannifex, J. H. (2000). Team midwifery care in a tertiary level obstetric service: a randomized controlled trial. Birth, 27(3), 168-173.

  1. The EndNote Output Style can be modified to exclude the "Type of Work/Article" field from appearing in the reference list entries.
     
  2. The extraenous text can be deleted permanently from the "Type of Work/Article" field, or the text can be moved to another unused field within each record. Within EndNote click Tools > Change/Move/Copy Fields. Select Type of Work from the dropdown list, then Clear Field, then click OK. Once this action is complete, all text appearing in the Type of Work field (includes Type of Article) will be deleted.

Document sharing and organisation

Dropbox - Up to 2GB of free storage in the cloud. Various paid options available.

Evernote - a suite of software and services designed for notetaking and archiving. Various paid versions, or a more restricted, advertising-supported, "free" version.

QUOSA - free trial available. Includes features for article archives and document management, text analysis, workgroup literature sharing.