This is a general guide to the Harvard referencing style.
Please check the referencing guide provided by your School, or Unit Assessor, to ensure compliance with the marking rubric for your assessments. The Library's Referencing page will help you identify which guide to use.
Harvard style is an author-date referencing system. It has two components:
1. In-text citations: Harvard style requires the use of a partial reference to the sources you are referring to in the text of your document. The in-text citation appears in the format of author-date or name-date enclosed in brackets e.g. (Smith 2008); (Southern Cross University 2010).
2. The reference list: a list containing the full bibliographic details of all the sources cited in your work, usually placed at the end of the document. Entries in the reference list are in alphabetical order by author names and must be in agreement to the in-text citations.
The general format and an example will be provided for each reference type in this guide:
In-Text Citation (Author date) - entry that appears in the body of your paper when you express the ideas of a researcher or author using your own words.
In-Text Citation (Author date, page number) - entry that appears in the body of your paper after a direct quote or when paraphrasing a passage, summarising an idea from a particular page or you want to direct the reader to a specific page.
References - entry that appears at the end of your paper.
There are many varieties of Harvard referencing system. This guide follows the standards described in the 'Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers' 6th edition, often referred to as the 'AGPS Manual' as it was formerly published by the Australian Government Publishing Services. It is also referred to as the 'Snooks manual', because the 6th edition was prepared by the consultants Snooks and Co. This guide is also compatible with the Harvard SCU style used in Endnote software.
Referencing, or citing, is an essential component of academic writing, as it acknowledges the sources of information you have used to complete your assignments.
You are required to reference any information, ideas or data that are not your own, including when you have:
Referencing is important because it: