Skip to main content

APA 6th Edition - SCU Referencing Guide

Journal or magazine article

If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference. This will replace the need to include the URL of the journal's home page. Refer to the Additional information box to the right for help in locating DOIs, whether they are, or are not, included with the article. 

Although the DOI can be presented either with the prefix: http://dx.doi.org/ or without, be sure to be consistent in the method you use. View further information about this DOI update here.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Author Surname, Year) OR (Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue*), page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of journal home page [if available]

* only include an issue number, if the journal starts the page numbering of each of its issues at  page 1 (see note in Additional information box on this page). Note: most journals do not paginate this way, so issue numbers should not be included, in most cases.

 

Example 1

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Smith, 2011)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Smith, 2011, p. 13)

References:

Smith, J. (2011). Agency and female teachers' career decisions: A life history study of 40 women. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 39, 7-24. doi:10.1177/1741143210383900

OR

Smith, J. (2011). Agency and female teachers' career decisions: A life history study of 40 women. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 39, 7-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1741143210383900

 

Example 2

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Roscoe, 1995)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Roscoe, 1995, p. 348)

References:

Roscoe, P. B. (1995). Familiar partners? The Mountain Arapesh and the Westermark effect. Journal of Anthropological Research, 51, 347-363. Retrieved from http://www.umn.edu/~jar

If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference. This will replace the need to include the URL of the journal's home page. Refer to the Additional information box to the right for help in locating DOIs, whether they are, or are not, included with the article. 

Although the DOI can be presented either with the prefix: http://dx.doi.org/ or without, be sure to be consistent in the method you use. View further information about this DOI update here.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Author Surname & Author Surname, Year) OR (Author Surname & Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname & Author Surname, Year, page number)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue*), page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of journal home page [if available]

* only include an issue number, if the journal starts the page numbering of each of its issues at page1 (see note in Additional information box on this page). Note: most journals do not paginate this way, so issue numbers should not be included, in most cases.

 

Example 1

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Browne & Hemsley, 2010)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Browne & Hemsley, 2010, p. 25)

References:

Browne, G., & Hemsley, M. (2010). Housing and living with a mental illness: Exploring carers' views. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 19, 22-29. doi:10.1111/j.1447-0349.2009.00635.x

OR

Browne, G., & Hemsley, M. (2010). Housing and living with a mental illness: Exploring carers' views. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 19, 22-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1447-0349.2009.00635.x

 

Example 2

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Rosas & West, 2009)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Rosas & West, 2009, pp. 21-22)

References:

Richardson, S., & Knight, B. (2011). Student perspectives of embedded professional practice in pre-service teacher education. International Journal of Applied Educational Studies, 10(2), 33-46. Retrieved from http://www.ijaes.com/

If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference. This will replace the need to include the URL of the journal's home page. Refer to the Additional information box to the right for help in locating DOIs, whether they are, or are not, included with the article. 

Although the DOI can be presented either with the prefix: http://dx.doi.org/ or without, be sure to be consistent in the method you use. View further information about this DOI update here.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Author Surname, Author Surname, & Author Surname, Year) OR (Author Surname, Author Surname, & Author Surname, Year, page number)

NOTE: Although the first in-text citation for a work with three to five authors/editors includes all of the names of the authors/editors, subsequent citations include only the first author's/editor's surname, followed by et al. and the year.

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Author Surname, & Author Surname, Year, page number)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue*), page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of journal home page [if available]

* only include an issue number, if the journal starts the page numbering of each of its issues at page 1 (see note in Additional information box on this page). Note: most journals do not paginate this way, so issue numbers should not be included, in most cases.

 

Example 1

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(James, Hart, Bailey, & Blinn, 2009)

NOTE: A subsequent citation would appear as (James et al., 2009)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(James, Hart, Bailey, & Blinn, 2009, p. 249)

References:

James, K. R., Hart, B. T., Bailey, P. C. E., & Blinn, D. W. (2009). Impact of secondary salinisation on freshwater ecosystems: Effect of experimentally increased salinity on an intermittent floodplain wetland. Marine and Freshwater Research, 60, 246-258. doi:10.1080/02615470020028364

 

OR

 

James, K. R., Hart, B. T., Bailey, P. C. E., & Blinn, D. W. (2009). Impact of secondary salinisation on freshwater ecosystems: Effect of experimentally increased salinity on an intermittent floodplain wetland. Marine and Freshwater Research, 60, 246-258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02615470020028364

 

Example 2

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Whiston, Tai, Rahardja, & Eder, 2011)

NOTE: A subsequent citation would appear as (Whiston et al., 2011)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Whiston, Tai, Rahardja, & Eder, 2011, p. 43)

References:

Whiston, S. C., Tai, W. L., Rahardja, D., & Eder, K. (2011). School counseling outcome: A meta-analytic examination of interventions. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89, 37-55. Retrieved from http://www.counseling.org/Publications/Journals.aspx

If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference. This will replace the need to include the URL of the journal's home page. Refer to the Additional information box to the right for help in locating DOIs, whether they are, or are not, included with the article. 

Although the DOI can be presented either with the prefix: http://dx.doi.org/ or without, be sure to be consistent in the method you use. View further information about this DOI update here.

When there are eight or more authors, include the first six authors' names, then insert three ellipsis points, and add the last author's name, in the References list (see Example 2 below).

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Author Surname et al., Year) OR (Author Surname et al., Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname et al., Year, page number)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue*), page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of journal home page [if available]

* only include an issue number, if the journal starts the page numbering of each of its issues at page 1 (see note in Additional information box on this page). Note: most journals do not paginate thos way, so issue numbers should not be included, in most cases.

 

Example 1

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Delfabbro et al., 2006)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Delfabbro et al., 2006, p. 72)

References:

Delfabbro, P., Winefield, T., Trainor, S., Dollard, M., Anderson, S., Metzer, J., & Hammarstrom, A. (2006). Peer and teacher bullying/victimization of South Australian secondary school students: Prevalence and psychosocial profiles. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 71-90. doi:10.1348/000709904X24645

OR

Delfabbro, P., Winefield, T., Trainor, S., Dollard, M., Anderson, S., Metzer, J., & Hammarstrom, A. (2006). Peer and teacher bullying/victimization of South Australian secondary school students: Prevalence and psychosocial profiles. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 71-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000709904X24645

 

Example 2 (8 or more authors)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Ruotolo et al., 2013)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Ruotolo et al., 2013, p. 508)

References:

Ruotolo, V., Di Pietro, B., Giurato, L., Masala, S., Meloni, M., Schillaci, O., . . . Uccioli, L. (2013). A new natural history of charcot foot: Clinical evolution and final outcome of stage 0 charcot neuroarthropathy in a tertiary referral diabetic foot clinic. Clinical Nuclear Medicine, 38, 506-509. doi: 10.1097/RLU.0b013e318292eecb

NOTE: A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be assigned both a print and an electronic article.
 
General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Author Surname & Author Surname, Year) OR (Author Surname & Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname & Author Surname, Year, page number)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue), page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx [if available]

 

Example

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Paterson & Thorne, 2003)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Paterson & Thorne, 2003, p. 30)

References:

Paterson, B. L., & Thorne, S. (2003). Enhancing the evaluation of nursing care effectiveness. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 35(3), 26-38.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Author Surname, Year) OR (Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title: Subtitle. Magazine Title, page range. Retrieved from URL of magazine home page [if viewed online].

Example 1

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Rick & Erlandson, 2009)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Rick & Erlandson, 2009, p. 952)

References:

Rick, T. C., & Erlandson, J. M. (2009, August 21). Coastal exploitation. Science, 325, 952-953.

Example 2

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Kuttner, 2003)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Kuttner, 2003, p. 26)

References:

Kuttner, R. (2003, September 8). The great American pension-fund robbery. Business Week, 24-26. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/

Helpful tip

Give the URL of the home page when the online version of the article is available by search to avoid non-working URLs.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Author Surname, Year) OR (Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title: Subtitle. Newspaper Title, page range. Retrieved from URL of newspaper home page [if viewed online].

Example 1

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Browne, 2010)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Browne, 2010, p. 7)

References:

Browne, R. (2010, March 21). This brainless patient is no dummy. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 7.

Example 2

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Hutcheon, 2011)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Hutcheon, 2011)

References:

Hutcheon, S. (2011, March 25). iPad 2 leading the charge. The Brisbane Times. Retrieved from http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au

Advance online publications or online first publications generally refer to peer-reviewed work before it has gone to print. It may not have had a final edit or be formatted for final production.

When referencing, include the full date, not just the year. You should also include the phrase "Advance online publication" before the DOI. If there is no DOI and the article was retrieved electronically, give the URL of the journal home page.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Author Surname, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial.. (Year, month day). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title. Advance online publication. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of journal home page [if available]

Example

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Askew, Reynolds, Fielding-Smith, & Field, 2015)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Askew, Reynolds, Fielding-Smith, & Field, 2015)

References:

Askew, C., Reynolds, G., Fielding-Smith, S., Field, A. P. (2015, December 14). Inhibition of vicariously learned fear in children using positive modeling and prior exposure. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/abn0000131

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year) OR (Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

References:

Author. (Year). Article title. Publication Title, volume(issue), pages. Retrieved from website
 

Example - organisation as author

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Joanna Briggs Institute, 2007)

(Joanna Briggs Institute, 2007, p. 1)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Joanna Briggs Institute, 2007, p. 2)

References:

Joanna Briggs Institute. (2007). Effective dietary interventions for overweight and obese children. Best Practice: Evidence Based Information Sheets for Health Professionals, 11(1), 1-4. Retrieved from http://www.joannabriggs.org

 

Example - individual as author

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Read, 2013)

(Read, 2013, p. 1)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Read, 2013, p. 2)

References:

Read, S. (2013). Home-based versus centre-based cardiac rehabilitation [Evidence summary]. Retrieved from http://www.joannabriggs.org

 

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year) OR (Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

References:

Author/s. (Year). Title. Publication title, year (issue), pages. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Example - online version

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Singh, Kour & Mahesh, 2012)

(Singh, Kour & Mahesh, 2012, p. 21)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Singh, Kour & Mahesh, 2012, p. 19)

References:

Singh, J., Kour, K., & Jayaram Mahesh, B. (2012). Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2012 (1), 1–101. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007967.pub2

The MIDIRS Midwifery Digest publishes both original article and reviews of published articles.

Example 2 'review article' format is based upon Example 48 'Peer commentary on an article' (p. 209).

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year) OR (Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

References:

Author. (Year). Article title. Publication Title, volume(issue), pages. Retrieved from website
 

Example 1 - original article

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Buder, 2015)

(Buder, 2015, p. 211)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Buder, 2015, p. 211)

References:

Buder, A. (2015). Implementation of delayed cord clamping in the active management of the third stage of labour. MIDIRS Midwifery Digest, 25(2), 211-217. Retrieved from https://www.midirs.org/

 

Example 2 - review article

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Pearson, 2016)

(Pearson, 2016, p. 74)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Pearson, 2016, p. 74)

References:

Pearson, M. (2016). Review of "A physiological approach to the timing of umbilical cord clamping at birth" [Review of "A physiological approach to the timing of umbilical cord clamping at birth," by S. B. Hooper, G. R. Polglase, & A. B. te Pas]. MIDIRS Midwifery Digest, 26(1), 74-75. Retrieved from https://www.midirs.com/
Loading ...

How-to videos

Loading ...

Additional information

Typically, one volume of a journal is produced in any one year. For any volume (year), several issues of the journal will be published, at regular intervals, such as monthly, quarterly or six-monthly, thoughout the year.

The page numbering of journal issues may be (a) continuous across the whole volume, irrespective of the number of issues for each volume (i.e. the page numbering for the next issue will follow on from the page numbering in the previous issue), or (b) start at page 1 in each issue of that volume. Note: it is rare for journals to be paginated by issue (the latter case).

In APA referencing style, if each issue of a journal starts its page numbering where the previous issue finished (as per (a) above), exclude the issue number. Otherwise include the issue number.

Please see this APA blog post for further information: How to determine whether a periodical is paginated by issue

Note that the full title of journals or magazines - not abbreviated titles - must be used in references for articles.

Note: A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) can be assigned to both print and electronic sources. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that is used to identify a certain source (typically journal articles).   

Example: doi:10.1080/14622200410001676305

If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference.  You will not have to include the URL of the journal's home page, if a DOI is available.

The DOI is often found on the first page of an article. For more information on DOIs and sample pictures indicating where to locate a DOI on a source, check out pages 188 to 192 of the APA Manual and/or this helpful DOI flow chart put together by the people at APA. As per this flow chart, you can paste the title of an article into Crossref (https://search.crossref.org/), to check if the article has a DOI.

NOTE: Although the DOI can be presented either with the prefix: http://dx.doi.org/ or without, be sure to be consistent in the method you use. View further information about this DOI update here.

Curious about how to find a DOI?

Check out the tutorial video put together by APA.

This information is from the APA Style Blog:

DOIs are assigned and maintained by registration agencies such as CrossRef, which provides citation-linking services for scientific publishers. Recently, CrossRef changed the format of the DOI to a more user-friendly one in the form of a URL:

Herbst, D. M., Griffith, N. R., & Slama, K. M. (2014). Rodeo cowboys: Conforming to masculine norms and help-seeking behaviors for depression. Journal of Rural Mental Health, 38, 20–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rmh0000008

As you can see, the DOI itself is the same (10.1037/rmh0000008), but it is preceded by http://dx.doi.org/ to insure that it resolves into a working link. Because this change is recent and many publishers are still implementing the new CrossRef guidelines, either the old or the new DOI format is acceptable. But be sure not to mush them together! Here are some examples.

Correct:    

doi:10.1037/rmh0000008

http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rmh0000008

Incorrect:     

http://doi:10.1037/rmh0000008

doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rmh0000008

Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rmh0000008

If you viewed a journal article in an online database and it does not have a DOI (either listed in the database or on the article itself), you need to identify the journal's home page (search on the journal title in the database UlrichsWeb (see how-to video above), or do a Google search on the title (pp. 191-192)). Check Example 2 on any of these Journal article pages, to see how these are displayed.

Loading ...
SCU SCU Library on Facebook SCU Library on Twitter SCU Library Instagram SCU Library SoundCloud