Skip to Main Content

Archived - APA 6th Edition - SCU Referencing Guide

References list


  • The reference list appears at the end of the article/report/document. In a report, it appears before the Appendices/Appendix.
  • It is headed by the centred title References.
  • The reference list is arranged in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author or by title or first word if there is no author. Ignore the words A, An, and The when alphabetising by title.
  • The entire reference list should be double-spaced, and should have a hanging indent for the second and subsequent lines for each entry. There are no additional spaces/lines between the entries. [Refer example reference list in this box.]
  • References cited in text must appear in the reference list and vice versa. The only exceptions to this rule are personal communications and classical works; they are cited in text only and are not included in the reference list.
  • In the case of secondary sources, if you have not consulted the primary source, only include the secondary source in your reference list.
  • Note: Tables, figures or images included only in an appendix are cited within the appendix (p. 39), and not usually included in the reference list.

Author information

  • Use only the initial(s) of the author’s given name, not the full name.
  • If the author's name includes a suffix (e.g. Jr, Sr or III), include the suffix in the entry in the reference list, but not in the in-text citation. Example entry: Jones, H. W., Jr., & Jones, H. W., Sr. (1941) ...
  • If the reference list includes 2 or more entries by the same author(s), list them in chronological (date) order with the earliest first.
  • If there is no author/editor, use the first few words of the title of the content (e.g. page, chapter, article, or entry) as the author, including the appropriate capitalization and italics formatting. e.g. (Scientists Say, 2000).
  • For works with up to 7 authors/editors, include the names of all in the reference list entry. For instances where there are 8 or more authors/editors, include the first six authors, then insert three ellipsis points (...), followed by the last author's name (see example on the Books page).
  • When the author is also the publisher, use the word Author in place of the publisher - see example under Government reports (print version).
  • References by the same author published in the same year are arranged alphabetically by title (excluding 'A' or 'The'), with the suffixes a, b, c, and so on, assigned to the year accordingly. See also Citing in text - general.

Publisher/place of publication

  • Where the place of publication is required, for American locations, provide the name of the city and state (abbreviated) - e.g. Boston, MA; for all other locations, provide the city and country. Note: for London, you may use either London, England, or London, United Kingdom.
  • If more than one city is provided on the title page of a book, use the first one as the place of publication.
  • When the author is also the publisher, use the word Author in place of the publisher - see example under Government reports (print version).

Formatting of text

  • In titles and subtitles of articles, chapters, and books, capitalise only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns, except in parenthetical (in text) citations.
  • Italicise book titles, journal titles, and volume numbers. Do NOT italicise issue numbers.
  • When the reference list entry includes a URL that must be divided between two lines, break it before a slash or dash or at another logical division point. 
  • Remember to set your Word preferences to remove hyperlinks from URLs to prevent them appearing with an underline.


Acceptable abbreviations to use in the Reference List include the following :

Abbreviation      Book or publication part
ed. edition
Rev. ed. Revised edition
2nd ed. second edition
2nd Aust. ed. second Australian edition
Ed. (Eds.) Editor (Editors)
Trans. Translator(s)
n.d. no date
p. (pp.) page (pages)
Vol. Volume (as in Vol. 4)
Vols. Volumes (as in Vols. 1-4)
No. Number
Pt. Part
Tech. Rep. Technical Report
Suppl. Supplement