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Archived - APA 6th Edition - SCU Referencing Guide

Books

1 author

Basic elements of a book reference:

The general format below refers to a book with one author. If the book is edited, refer to the Chapter in edited book/ebook tab in this box. 

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Author Surname, Year) OR (Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.

 

Example 1 - 1 author

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Mayer, 2010)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Mayer, 2010, p. 10)

References:

Mayer, D. (2010). Essential evidence-based medicine (2nd ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

 

Example 2 - 1 editor

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Prosser, 2011)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Prosser, 2011, p. 16)

References:

Prosser, I. P. (Ed.). (2011). Water: Science and solutions for Australia. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing.

2 authors

The general format below refers to a book with two authorsIf the book is edited, refer to the Chapter in edited book/ebook tab in this box. 

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Author Surname & Author Surname, Year) OR (Author Surname & Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname & Author Surname, Year, page number)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.

 

Example 1 - 2 authors

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Abigail & Cahn, 2011)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Abigail & Cahn, 2011, p. 219)

References:

Abigail, R., & Cahn, D. (2011). Managing conflict through communication (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

 

Example 2 - 2 editors

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Maher & Cooper, 2008)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Maher & Cooper, 2008, p. 30)

References:

Maher, K., & Cooper, B. (Eds.). (2008). National standards of practice for case management. Melbourne, Australia: Case Management Society of Australia.

3-5 authors

The general format below refers to a book with three authorsIf the book is edited, refer to the Chapter in edited book/ebook tab in this box. 

For a book with four or five authors, you would add the additional authors' names after the first three.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Author Surname, & Author Surname, Year) OR (Author Surname, Author Surname, & Author Surname, Year, page number)

NOTE: Although the first in-text citation for a work with three to five authors/editors includes all of the names of the authors/editors, subsequent citations include only the first author's/editor's surname, followed by et al. and the year.

In-Text Citation (Direct Quote):

(Author Surname, Author Surname, & Author Surname, Year, page number)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.

 

Example

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Glasgow, McNary, & Hicks, 2006)

NOTE: A subsequent citation would appear as (Glasgow et al., 1999)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Glasgow, McNary, & Hicks, 2006, p. 59)

References:

Glasgow, N. A., McNary, S. J., & Hicks, C. D. (2006). What successful teachers do in diverse classrooms. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

6-7 authors

The general format below refers to a book with six to seven authorsIf the book is edited, refer to the Chapter in edited book/ebook tab in this box. 

For a book with six or seven authors, include the first author and then 'et al.'. Include all author names in the Reference List.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname et al., Year) OR (Author Surname et al., Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname et al., Year, page number)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.

 

Example

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Churchill et al., 2013)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Churchill et al., 2013, pp. 3-5)

References:

Churchill, R., Ferguson, P., Godinho, S., Johnson, N. F., Keddie, A., Lets, W., & Mackay, J. (2013). Teaching: Making a difference. Sydney, Australia: John Wiley & Sons.

8 or more authors

The general format below refers to a book with eight or more authorsIf the book is edited, refer to the Chapter in edited book/ebook tab in this box. 

For the in-text citation for a book with eight or more authors or editors, include the first author or editor and then 'et al.'. Include the first six authors' or editors' names, then insert three ellipsis points and add the last author or editors name in the Reference List.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname et al., Year) OR (Author Surname et al., Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname et al., Year, page number)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. ... Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.

 

Example

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Berman et al., 2012)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Berman et al., 2012, p. 59)

References:

Berman, A., Snyder, S. J., Levett-Jones, T., Dwyer, T., Hales, M., Harvey, N., ... Stanley, D. (2012). Kozier and Erb's fundamentals of nursing (2nd Aust. ed.). Frenchs Forest, Australia: Pearson Australia.

e-book

The reference list entry for a whole e-book should include elements of author, date, title (with e-reader book type in square brackets if applicable; italicize the title but not the bracketed material), and source (URL or DOI). If the book was read or acquired through an online library (e.g., Google Books, ebrary, ebl) and not on an e-reader device, omit the bracketed information from the reference.

Note that you give the commercial URL of the ebook supplier, NOT the university web address of the database. eg the correct URL for ProQuest titles is https://ebookcentral.proquest.com. For ereader titles type Kindle version or Kobo version in square brackets, and include http:www.amazon.com or http://www.kobo.com as the URL.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year) OR (Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxx OR http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of the home page of the e-book provider.

 

Example

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Hendry, 2005)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Henke, 2012, p. 63)

(Levitt & Dubner, 2010, p. 34)

References:

Hendry, J. (2005). Reclaiming culture: Indigenous peoples and self representation. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Henke, J. (2012). Mobile phone devices: Development, features and effects on health. Retrieved from https://www.ebscohost.com/ebooks

Levitt, S. D., & Dubner, S. J. (2010). Superfreakonomics: Global cooling, patriotic prostitutes, and why suicide bombers should buy life insurance [Kindle version]. Retrieved from http:www.amazon.com

Open Educational Resource (textbook)

Note: The APA 6th Manual and Blog do not provide any instructions on how to reference Open Educational Resources (OERs). Therefore, the Library recommends following the APA 7th edition example.

References list:

  • General format:
    • Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Date: year, month day; year, month; or year). Book title: Subtitle. OER Publisher/Repository. Retrieved from URL of the website/book
  • Provide as specific a date as is available for the book
  • Do not include the CC licence information
  • Include a retrieval date in the reference if you identify that the contents of the page are meant to be updated over time, but are not archived

Example:

Fagan, J. (2019, March 25). Nursing clinical brain. OER Commons. Retrieved January 7, 2020, from ttps://www.oercommons.org/authoring/53029-nursing-clinical-brain/view

In-text citation:

  • Where the book is available via pdf, use the page numbers in that document when quoting directly or paraphrasing. If the document is not available as a pdf and there are no page numbers, use any of the following location information (from the APA 6th Blog):
    • a paragraph number, if provided; alternatively, you can count paragraphs down from the beginning of the document;
    • an overarching heading plus a paragraph number within that section; or
    • an abbreviated heading (or the first few words of the heading) in quotation marks, in cases in which the heading is too unwieldy to cite in full, plus a paragraph number within that section.

 

Chapter in an edited book/e-book

Note: This refers to edited books (the title page refers to "edited by ..."), where individual chapters of the book are written by different authors (which may include the editor/s). These authors may also be called "contributors". These authors are acknowledged at the beginning of the chapters, and/or in the table of contents.

Where there is only one editor, in the References list, you would simply insert the editor's name in the place where the author's name is now, followed by "(Ed.)" without the quotation marks. Where there are two or more editors, insert the editors' names, followed by "(Eds.)" without the quotation marks. 

If edition, or revision information is to be included, it comes before the page numbers, and the two elements are separated by a comma. For numbered editions, use the abbreviation for the ordinal number that applies (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.) then add "ed." For a revised edition, use the abbreviations "Rev. ed."

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname [of Chapter], Year) OR (Author Surname [of Chapter], Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname [of Chapter], Year, page number)

References:

Author Surname [of Chapter], First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Chapter title. In Editor First Initial. Second Initial. Surname (Ed.), Book title: Subtitle (pp. page range of chapter). Place of Publication: Publisher.

 

Example

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Thompson, 2008)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Thompson, 2008, p. 13)

References:

Thompson, S. (2008). Teaching in a virtual setting. In L. Bell & R.B. Trueman (Eds.), Virtual worlds, real libraries: Librarians and educators in Second Life and other multi-user virtual environments (pp. 165-172). Medford, NJ: Information Today.

Example - for an edition other than the first

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Thompson, 2011)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Thompson, 2011, p. 17)

References:

Thompson, S. (2011). Teaching in a virtual setting. In L. Bell & R.B. Trueman (Eds.), Virtual worlds, real libraries: Librarians and educators in Second Life and other multi-user virtual environments (2nd ed., pp. 165-172). Medford, NJ: Information Today.

 

Example (ebook)

 

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Dawson, 2004)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Dawson, 2004, p. 64)

References:

Dawson, G. (2004). Work: From certainty to flexibility. In G. Hughes & R. Ferguson (Eds.), Ordering lives: Family, work and welfare (pp. 84-118). Retrieved from http://www.eblib.com.au

Edition other than the first

Second edition = 2nd ed.

Third edition = 3rd ed.

Fourth edition = 4th ed.

Revised edition = Rev. ed.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year) OR (Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle (edition). Place of Publication: Publisher.

 

Example

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Buglear, 2010)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Buglear, 2010, p. 22)

References:

Buglear, J. (2010). Stats mean business (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Translations

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year Originally Published/Year of Translation) OR (Author Surname, Year Originally Published/Year of Translation, page number)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year Originally Published/Year of Translation, page number)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle (Translator: First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, Trans.). Place of Publication: Publisher. (Original work published year)

 

Example

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Castro, 2006/2008)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Castro, 2006/2008, p. 112)

References:

Castro, F. (2008). My life (A. Hurley, Trans.). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 2006).

Classical/ancient texts

The Publication Manual (6th ed.) indicates that reference list entries are not required when citing “ancient Greek and Roman works or classical religious works” (p. 179). These works are so widely known and available that all that is required is an in-text citation.

For ancient Greek and Roman works, cite the year of translation used, preceded by trans., or the year of the version you used, followed by version.

For example:

(Aristotle, trans. 1931)

For the first in-text citation, whether it is general reference or a direct quote, summary or paraphrase, identify the version used, if that is relevant. You do not need to repeat the version name in subsequent references.

For example:

The researchers consulted the Bible (King James Version) ....

If paraphrasing or quoting specific parts of the classical work, also provide the relevant names and/or numbers of chapters/verses/lines, which are provided systematically across all editions.

For example:

The Qur'an (5:3-4) specifies ....

Adapted from the Publication Manual, and this post on the APA Style blog. 

Entry in drugs handbook or dictionary with no author

When a work has no author, use the title of the content (e.g. page, chapter, article, entry) as the author (with no double quotes) in the reference list. In the in-text citation, include the title of the content (or first few words, if long) (in double quotes) and the year, and italicise the title of a periodical, book, brochure or report (pp. 176, 184).

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

("Content title[capitalised, and usually shortened, if long], Year) OR ("Content title[usually shortened, if long], Year, page number (if in print))

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

("Content title[capitalised, and usually shortened, if long], Year, page number (if in print))

References (print):

Content title. (Year). In Title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.

References (online):

Content title. (Year). In Title: Subtitle. Retrieved from http://xxxx.

 

Example (print)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

("Palliative", 2000)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

("Palliative", 2000, p. 3)

References:

Palliative. (2000). In Webster's basic English dictionary. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

 

Example (online)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase or Quotation): 

("Amoxicillin", 2018)

References:

Amoxicillin. (2018). In Australian medicines handbook. Retrieved from https://amhonline-amh-net-au/chapters/anti-infectives/antibacterials/penicillins/amoxicillin

Entry in a dictionary or encyclopaedia with individual author

For an example of a print dictionary entry without an Author, see Books - No author.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname [of Article], Year) OR (Author Surname [of Article], Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname [of Article], Year, page number)

References (print example):

Author Surname [of Entry/Article], First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Entry/Article title. In Editor First Initial. Second Initial. Surname (Ed.), Reference book title: Subtitle (edition, pp. xx-xx). Place of Publication: Publisher.

References (online example):

Author Surname [of Entry/Article], First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Entry/Article title. In Editor First Initial. Second Initial. Surname (Ed.), Reference book title: Subtitle (edition, pp. xx-xx). Retrieved from URL (OR doi:xxxxxxxxx)

 

Example - Encyclopedia

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Lindgren, 1994)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Lindgren, 1994, p. 468)

References:

Lindgren, H. C. (1994). Stereotyping. In Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 468-469). New York, NY: Wiley

 

Example - Dictionary (with author and editor)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Bhavsar & Ntoumanis, 2019)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Bhavsar & Ntoumanis, 2019, p. 173)

References:

Bhavsar, N., & Ntoumanis, N. (2019). Intrinsic motivation. In D. Hackfort, R. J. Schinke, & B. Strauss (Eds.), Dictionary of sport psychology: Sport, exercise, and performing arts. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/auth/lib/fjpw/login.action

Rehabilitation Reference Center

The example below is taken from the 'Drug Information' section of the Rehabilitation Reference Center, which uses AHFS Drug Information Essentials, as the source. Information on individual drugs (published as chapters from this title) is provided in html format only (not as a PDF).

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year) OR (Author Surname, Year, Heading)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, Heading)

References:

Author. (Year). Chapter (drug) title. In Publication title. Retrieved from URL of source
 

Example

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(McEvoy, 2018)

(McEvoy, 2018, Drug Interactions)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(McEvoy, 2018, Drug Interactions)

References:

McEvoy, G. K. (2018). Abatacept. In AHFS Drug Information Essentials. Retrieved from https://www.ahfsdruginformation.com

Illustrated book/picture book

The APA 6th Publication Manual does not include specific examples for including illustrators.

The following examples are ways that other universities have suggested that illustrators can be included if necessary for picture books.

General Format (1)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname & Illustrator Surname, Year) OR (Author Surname & Illustrator Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname & Illustrator Surname, Year, page number)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Illustrator Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.

 

General Format (2)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year) OR (Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surnamee, Year, page number)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle (Illus. First Initial. Illustrator Surname). Place of Publication: Publisher.

 

Example 1

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Fox & Mullins, 1986) OR (Fox & Mullins, 1986, p. 10)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Fox & Mullins, 1986, p. 6)

References:

Fox, M., & Mullins, P. (Illustrator). (1986). Hattie and the fox. Sydney, Australia: Scholastic Press.

 

Example 2

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Fox, 1986)

In-Text Citation (Direct Quote):

(Fox, 1986, p. 6)

References:

Fox, M. (1986). Hattie and the fox (P. Mullins, Illus.). Sydney, Australia: Scholastic Press.

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